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J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor.. 2018;16(2):021001-021001-11. doi:10.1115/1.4040921.

Redox flow batteries have shown great potential for a wide range of applications in future energy systems. However, the lack of a deep understanding of the key drivers of the techno-economic performance of different flow battery technologies—and how these can be improved—is a major barrier to wider adoption of these battery technologies. This study analyzes these drivers and provides an extensive comparison of four flow battery technologies, including the all-vanadium redox (VRB), iron–chromium, zinc–bromine, and polysulfide–bromine flow batteries, by examining their current and projected techno-economic performances. We address the potential for performance improvements and resulting cost reduction by developing a component-based learning curve model. The model considers the near-term learning rates for various subcomponents of each of the four battery technologies as well as their technological improvements. The results show that (i) both technological improvements in the performance parameters as well as mass production effects could drive significant cost reductions for flow battery systems; (ii) flow battery systems could be cost-effective in a variety of energy system applications in the near future; and (iii) from a techno-economic perspective, VRB systems are more suitable for the applications that require low energy and high power capacities.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor.. 2018;16(2):021002-021002-8. doi:10.1115/1.4041454.

Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) for lithium-ion batteries is considered as perfect cathode material for various military applications, especially underwater combat vehicles. For deployment at high rate applications, the low conductivity of LiFePO4 needs to be improved. Cationic substitution of niobium in the native carbon coated LiFePO4 is one of the methods to enhance the conductivity. In the present work, how the niobium doped solid solution could be formed is studied. Nanopowders of LiFePO4/C and Li1−xNbxFePO4/C (x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.16) are synthesized from precursors using microwave synthesis. The solid solution formation up to (x = 0.15) Li1−xNbxFePO4/C without impurity phases is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) results. Particle distribution is obtained by scanning electron microscope from the synthesized powders. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) results qualitatively confirmed the presence of niobium. Also, direct current (dc) conductivities are measured using sintered pellets and activation energies are calculated using Arrhenius equation. The dependence of conductivity and activation energy of LiFePO4/C on variation of niobium doping is investigated in this study. CR2032 type coin cells are fabricated with the synthesized materials and subjected to cyclic voltammetry studies, rate capability and cycle life studies. Diffusion coefficients are obtained from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies. It is observed that room temperature dc conductivity improved by niobium doping when compared to LiFePO4/C (0.379 × 10−2 S/cm) and is maximum for Li0.9Nb0.1FePO4/C (40.58 × 10−2 S/cm). It is also observed that diffusion coefficient of Li+ in Li0.9Nb0.1FePO4/C (13.306 × 10−9 cm2 s−1) improved by two orders of magnitude in comparison with the pure LiFePO4 (10 − 12 cm2 s−1) and carbon-coated nano LiFePO4/C (0.632 × 10−11 cm2 s−1). Cells with Li0.9Nb0.1FePO4/C are able to deliver useful capacity of around 104 mAh/g at 10 C rate. More than 500 cycles are achieved with Li0.9Nb0.1FePO4/C at 20 C rate.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor.. 2018;16(2):021003-021003-12. doi:10.1115/1.4041727.

This paper presents the development of the subsystems for stationary biogas powered solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)-based combined cooling, heat and power (CCHP). For certain applications, such as buildings, a heat-driven operation mode leads to low operating hours per year for conventional combined heat and power (CHP) systems due to the low heat demand during the summer season. The objectives of this study are the evaluation of an adsorber, a steam reformer, a SOFC, and an absorption chiller (AC). Biogas, however, contains impurities in the form of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), hydrogen chloride (HCl), and siloxanes in different concentrations, which have a negative effect on the performance and durability of the SOFC and, in the case of H2S, also on the catalyst of the steam reformer. This paper describes different experimental sections: (i) the biogas treatment with its main focus on H2S separation and steam reforming, (ii) the setup and start-up of a 10 cell SOFC stack, and (iii) test runs with an AC using a mixture of NH3 (ammonia)/H2O (water). The components required for the engineering process of the subsystem's structure are described in detail and possible options for system design are explained. The evaluation is the basis to reveal the improvement potentials, which have to be considered in future product developments. This paper aims at comparing experimental data of the test rigs to develop an understanding of the requirements for a stable and continuous operation of a SOFC-based CCHP operated by biogas.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor.. 2018;16(2):021004-021004-6. doi:10.1115/1.4041979.

This paper describes electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (ADEFCs), using the non-noble metal electrocatalyst Ag/C, MnO2/C and AgMnO2/C. These electrocatalysts showed tolerance toward ethanol in alkaline media and therefore resistance to ethanol crossover in ADEFCs. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), cyclic voltammetry, and rotating disk electrode (RDE) were employed to determine the morphology, composition, and electrochemical activity of the catalysts. The herein presented results confirm that the AgMnO2/C electrocatalyst significantly outperforms the state-of-the art ORR catalyst platinum.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor.. 2018;16(2):021005-021005-13. doi:10.1115/1.4041864.

In this paper, a new heat recovery for a microcogeneration system based on solid oxide fuel cell and air source heat pump (HP) is presented with the main goal of improving efficiency on energy conversion for a residential building. The novelty of the research work is that exhaust gases after the fuel cell are first used to heat water for heating/domestic water and then mixed with the external air to feed the evaporator of the HP with the aim of increasing energy efficiency of the latter. This system configuration decreases the possibility of freezing of the evaporator as well, which is one of the drawbacks for air source HP in Nordic climates. A parametric analysis of the system is developed by performing simulations varying the external air temperature, air humidity, and fuel cell nominal power. Coefficient of performance (COP) can increase more than 100% when fuel cell electric power is close to its nominal (50 kW), and/or inlet air has a high relative humidity (RH) (close to 100%). Instead, the effect of mixing the exhausted gases with air may be negative (up to −25%) when fuel cell electric power is 20 kW and inlet air has 25% RH. Thermodynamic analysis is carried out to prove energy advantage of such a solution with respect to a traditional one, resulting to be between 39% and 44% in terms of primary energy. The results show that the performance of the air source HP increases considerably during cold season for climates with high RH and for users with high electric power demand.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor.. 2018;16(2):021006-021006-7. doi:10.1115/1.4041983.

In the recent years, with the rapid advancements made in the technologies of electric and hybrid electric vehicles, selecting suitable batteries has become a major factor. Among the batteries currently used for these types of vehicles, the lithium-ion battery leads the race. Apart from that, the energy gained from regenerative braking in locomotives and vehicles can be stored in batteries for later use for propulsion thus improving the fuel consumption and efficiency. But batteries can be subjected to a wide range of temperatures depending upon the operating conditions. Thus, a thorough knowledge of the battery performance over a wide range of temperatures and different load conditions is necessary for their successful employment in future technologies. In this context, this study aims to experimentally analyze the performance of Li-ion batteries by monitoring the charge–discharge rates, efficiencies, and energy storage capabilities under different environmental and load conditions. Sensors and thermal imaging camera were used to track the environment and battery temperatures, whereas the charge–discharge characteristics were analyzed using CADEX analyzer. The results show that the battery performance is inversely proportional to charge–discharge rates. This is because, at higher charge–discharge rates, the polarization losses increase thus increasing internal heat generation and battery temperature. Also, based on the efficiency and energy storage ability, the optimum performing conditions of the Li-ion battery are 30–40 °C (temperature) and 0.5 C (C-rate).

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor.. 2018;16(2):021007-021007-3. doi:10.1115/1.4041980.

The prelithiation of hard carbon electrode using stable metal lithium powder to compensate the lithium loss during the first lithium insertion is studied in this work. The results show that when the pressure on lithium powder surface is 6 MPa, the Li2CO3 protective layer on the surface of stable metal lithium powder is completely squeezed, which is conducive due to the full contact between the metal lithium and the hard carbon. The prelithiation of hard carbon has little effect on the initial charge capacity and cycle life. Both the pre-lithium capacity and the utilization efficiency of lithium powder increase with the increasing of the lithium powder content, and when the amount of lithium powder is 3 g m−2, the utilization efficiency of lithium powder is 56%.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor.. 2018;16(2):021008-021008-5. doi:10.1115/1.4041981.

In this study, lithium (Li) intercalation-induced stress of LiCoO2 with anisotropic properties using three-dimensional (3D) microstructures has been studied systematically. Phase field method was employed to generate LiCoO2 polycrystals with varying grain sizes. Li diffusion and stresses inside the polycrystalline microstructure with different grain size, grain orientation, and grain boundary diffusivity were investigated using finite element method. The results show that the anisotropic mechanical properties and Li concentration-dependent volume expansion coefficient have a very small influence on the Li chemical diffusion coefficients. The low partial molar volume of LiCoO2 leads to this phenomenon. The anisotropic mechanical properties have a large influence on the magnitude of stress generation. Since the Young's modulus of LiCoO2 along the diffusion pathway (a–b axis) is higher than that along c–axis, the Li concentration gradient is larger along the diffusion pathway. Thus, for the same intercalation-induced strain, the stress generation will be higher (∼40%) than that with isotropic mechanical properties as discussed in our previous study (Wu, L., Zhang, Y., Jung, Y.-G., and Zhang, J., 2015, “Three-Dimensional Phase Field Based Finite Element Study on Li Intercalation-Induced Stress in Polycrystalline LiCoO2,” J. Power Sources, 299, pp. 57–65). This work demonstrates the importance to include anisotropic property in the model.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor.. 2018;16(2):021009-021009-7. doi:10.1115/1.4041982.

This work investigates the photocatalytic activity of new ferroelectric material with formula (Li0.95Cu0.15)Ta0.76Nb0.19O3 (LT76) in a single chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) and compares its performance with the similar photocatalyst (Li0.95Cu0.15)Ta0.57Nb0.38O3 (LT57). The photocatalysts LT76 and LT57 were synthesized by ceramic route under the same conditions, with the same starting materials. The ratio Ta/Nb was fixed at 4.0 and 1.5 for LT76 and LT57, respectively. These phases were characterized by different techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), particle size distribution (PSD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and ultraviolet (UV)–visible (Vis). The new photocatalyst LT76 presents specific surface area of 0.791 m2/g and Curie temperature of 1197 °C. The photocatalytic efficiency of this material is assessed in terms of wastewater treatment and electricity generation by power density and removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the presence of a light source. The values of maximum power density and COD removal were 19.77 mW/m3 and 93%, respectively, for LT76.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor.. 2019;16(2):021010-021010-13. doi:10.1115/1.4042092.

A hybrid power system consisting of an intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a lithium-ion battery is conceptually designed for water taxi applications. The sizing method of such a hybrid system is developed based on the resistance, acceleration performance, cruising cycle, and the speeds of a water taxi under the conditions of daily operation time and charge neutrality over a 24 h period. A techno-economic analysis (TEA) is performed for the proposed hybrid system and compared with other two power sources, a typical internal combustion engine (ICE), and a battery-only system. A feasibility study based on the weight and the volume of the hybrid system is conducted. The potential reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions is calculated and compared with the GHG emissions from water taxies powered by an ICE and a battery-only, respectively.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster
J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor.. 2019;16(2):021011-021011-11. doi:10.1115/1.4042093.

With the increase of production of electrical vehicles (EVs) and battery packs, lithium ion batteries inconsistency problem has drawn much attention. Lithium ion battery imbalance phenomenon exists during three different stages of life cycle. First stage is premanufacturing of battery pack i.e., during the design, the cells of similar performance need to be clustered to improve the performance of pack. Second is during the use of battery pack in EVs, batteries equalization is necessary. In the third stage, clustering of spent lithium ion batteries for reuse is also an important problem because of the great recycling challenge of lithium batteries. In this work, several clustering and equalization methods are compared and summarized for different stages. The methods are divided into the traditional methods and intelligent methods. The work also proposes experimental combined clustering analysis for new lithium-ion battery packs formation with improved electrochemical performance for electric vehicles. Experiments were conducted by dismantling of pack and measurement of capacity, voltage, and internal resistance data. Clustering analysis based on self-organizing map (SOM) neural networks is then applied on the measured data to form clusters of battery packs. The validation results conclude that the battery packs formed from the clustering analysis have higher electrochemical performance than randomly selected ones. In addition, a comprehensive discussion was carried out.

Commentary by Dr. Valentin Fuster

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