Research Papers

Temperature Distribution Optimization of an Air-Cooling Lithium-Ion Battery Pack in Electric Vehicles Based on the Response Surface Method

[+] Author and Article Information
Xiangping Liao

College of Mechanical Engineering,
Hunan University of Humanities,
Science and Technology,
Loudi City 417000, China;
College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering,
Central South University,
Changsha City 410083, China
e-mail: 520joff@163.com

Chong Ma

Intelligent Manufacturing Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education,
Shantou University,
Shantou City 515063, China
e-mail: 17cma@stu.edu.cn

Xiongbin Peng

Intelligent Manufacturing Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education,
Shantou University,
Shantou City 515063, China
e-mail: xbpeng@stu.edu.cn

Akhil Garg

Intelligent Manufacturing Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education,
Shantou University,
Shantou City 515063, China
e-mail: akhil@stu.edu.cn

Nengsheng Bao

Intelligent Manufacturing Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education,
Shantou University,
Shantou City 515063, China
e-mail: nsbao@stu.edu.cn

2Corresponding author.

1These authors contributed equally to the paper.

Manuscript received October 28, 2018; final manuscript received February 4, 2019; published online March 12, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Ankur Jain.

J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor. 16(4), 041002 (Mar 12, 2019) (8 pages) Paper No: JEECS-18-1115; doi: 10.1115/1.4042922 History: Received October 28, 2018; Accepted February 05, 2019

Electric vehicles have become a trend in recent years, and the lithium-ion battery pack provides them with high power and energy. The battery thermal system with air cooling was always used to prevent the high temperature of the battery pack to avoid cycle life reduction and safety issues of lithium-ion batteries. This work employed an easily applied optimization method to design a more efficient battery pack with lower temperature and more uniform temperature distribution. The proposed method consisted of four steps: the air-cooling system design, computational fluid dynamics code setups, selection of surrogate models, and optimization of the battery pack. The investigated battery pack contained eight prismatic cells, and the cells were discharged under normal driving conditions. It was shown that the optimized design performs a lower maximum temperature of 2.7 K reduction and a smaller temperature standard deviation of 0.3 K reduction than the original design. This methodology can also be implemented in industries where the battery pack contains more battery cells.

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Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the battery pack

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Fig. 2

Procedure of the air-cooling battery pack optimum design

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Fig. 3

Experimental setup of the battery cell and battery pack: (a) heat generation setup of a single cell battery and (b) basic structure of the battery pack with air cooling

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Fig. 4

Comparison of the maximum temperature of the battery pack with the variation of inlet wind velocity at different grid numbers

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Fig. 5

Comparison of the experimental and simulation temperature on the surface of the middle part of a single cell battery

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Fig. 6

Sensitivity analysis showing the influences of each of the design variables on the objectives

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Fig. 7

RSM diagram of the effect of d9 and d10 on the average temperature of all battery cells

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Fig. 8

RSM diagram of the influence of battery spacing on the average temperature of each battery

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Fig. 9

Comparison of battery cell average temperatures

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Fig. 10

Experimental setup of the air-cooled battery pack

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Fig. 11

Comparisons between the calculated and experimental results: (a) initial design, (b) candidate design 1, and (c) candidate design 2



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