Anode recirculation is essential to the pure-hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cell system. Keeping the pressure difference between the anode and the cathode is also important to the membrane health. In this paper, a dynamic platform was designed for the recirculation test of injection pump and real-time control of the anode pressure tracking. The test bench can work in a wide range of conditions for high- and low-pressure application. Based on the MATLAB/xPC Target environment, some S functions were written to drive the PC board for the hardware-in-loop application. Then an analytical full-order and a reduced-order model were built with good accuracy. By linearization of the nonlinear dynamic model, a linear quadratic Gaussian algorithm based on state feedback was used for set-point tracking. Moreover, an adaptive fuzzy neural network with an on-line neural network identifier was also designed to improve the control robustness. The foundation of the test bench and realization of the real-time control algorithms are meaningful to the future application in fuel cell systems.