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SPECIAL ISSUE RESEARCH PAPERS

Physical-Chemical and Thermodynamic Analyses of Ethanol Steam Reforming for Hydrogen Production

[+] Author and Article Information
Antonio Carlos Caetano de Souza

Energy Department, College of Engineering of Guaratinguetá, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Guaratinguetá, SP, Brazil; Mechanics Department, College of Engineering, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), La Plata, BA, Argentinacaetano@feg.unesp.br

José Luz-Silveira

Energy Department, College of Engineering of Guaratinguetá, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Guaratinguetá, SP, Brazil; Mechanics Department, College of Engineering, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), La Plata, BA, Argentinajoseluz@feg.unesp.br

Maria Isabel Sosa

Energy Department, College of Engineering of Guaratinguetá, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Guaratinguetá, SP, Brazil; Mechanics Department, College of Engineering, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), La Plata, BA, Argentinamisosa@volta.ing.unlp.edu.ar

J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol 3(3), 346-350 (Jan 26, 2006) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2217957 History: Received October 24, 2005; Revised January 26, 2006

Steam reforming is the most usual method of hydrogen production due to its high production efficiency and technological maturity. The use of ethanol for this purpose is an interesting option because it is a renewable and environmentally friendly fuel. The objective of this article is to present the physical-chemical, thermodynamic, and exergetic analysis of a steam reformer of ethanol, in order to produce 0.7Nm3h of hydrogen as feedstock of a 1kW PEMFC. The global reaction of ethanol is considered. Superheated ethanol reacts with steam at high temperatures producing hydrogen and carbon dioxide, depending strongly on the thermodynamic conditions of reforming, as well as on the technical features of the reformer system and catalysts. The thermodynamic analysis shows the feasibility of this reaction in temperatures about 206°C. Below this temperature, the reaction trends to the reactants. The advance degree increases with temperature and decreases with pressure. Optimal temperatures range between 600 and 700°C. However, when the temperature attains 700°C, the reaction stability occurs, that is, the hydrogen production attains the limit. For temperatures above 700°C, the heat use is very high, involving high costs of production due to the higher volume of fuel or electricity used. The optimal pressure is 1atm., e.g., at atmospheric pressure. The exergetic analysis shows that the lower irreversibility is attained for lower pressures. However, the temperature changes do not affect significantly the irreversibilities. This analysis shows that the best thermodynamic conditions for steam reforming of ethanol are the same conditions suggested in the physical-chemical analysis.

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Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Steam reforming of ethanol global scheme

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Figure 2

Gibbs energy as a function of temperature for global reaction of steam reforming of ethanol

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Figure 3

Advance degree as function of pressure and temperature

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Figure 4

Irreversibility as a function of temperature and pressure

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Figure 5

Rational efficiency as a function of temperature and pressure

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Figure 6

Exergetic efficiency as function of temperature and pressure

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