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TECHNICAL PAPERS

A Comparative Study Between Resistance Measurements in Model Experiments and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Performance Tests

[+] Author and Article Information
V. A. C. Haanappel

Institute for Materials and Processes in Energy Systems, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich, Germanyv.haanappel@fz-juelich.de

P. Batfalsky, S. M. Gross

Central Department of Technology, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich, Germany

L. G. J. de Haart, J. Malzbender, N. H. Menzler, V. Shemet, R. W. Steinbrech, I. C. Vinke

Institute for Materials and Processes in Energy Systems, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich, Germany

J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol 4(1), 11-18 (Feb 28, 2006) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2393301 History: Received September 07, 2005; Revised February 28, 2006

Several combinations of glass-ceramic and steel compositions with excellent chemical and physical properties have been tested in the past in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks, but there have also been some combinations exhibiting pronounced chemical interactions causing severe stack degradation. Parallel to the examination of these degradation and short-circuiting phenomena in stack tests, recently less complex model experiments have been developed to study the interaction of glass-ceramic sealants and interconnect steels. The sealants and steels were tested in the model experiments at operation temperature using a dual air/hydrogen atmosphere similar to stack conditions. The present work compares electrochemical performance under constant current load of SOFC stack tests with the resistance changes in model experiments. In addition, microstructural results of post-operation inspection of various sealant–steel combinations are presented. The model experiments have shown that under the chosen experimental conditions, distinct changes of the specific resistance of the specimens correlate well with the changes of the electrochemical performance of SOFC stacks, indicating that this method can be considered as an excellent comparative method to provide useful information on the physical and chemical interactions between glass-ceramic sealants and ferritic steels.

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Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Schematic view of a two-plane SOFC stack of F-design (FZJ)

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Figure 2

Time dependence of the cell voltages of stack T1/GS-B (F1002-44) operated at 800°C and under a constant load of 0.3A∕cm2

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Figure 3

Time dependence of the cell voltages of stack T1/GS-A (F1002-10) operated at 800°C under a constant load of 0.3A∕cm2

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Figure 4

Time dependence of the output voltage stack T2/GS-D (F1002-4) operated at 800°C under a constant load of 0.3A∕cm2

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Figure 5

Dismantled SOFC stack T1/GS-A (F1002-26) after 2900h of operation at 700°C: (a) anode side of interconnect and (b) magnified outer rim of glass-ceramic sealant. Formation of iron-containing oxide nodules.

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Figure 6

SOFC stack type T1/GS-A (F1002-29) after 530h of operation at 750°C. SEM cross sections: (a) complete width of seal from fuel to outer ambient atmosphere; (b) internal oxidation and delamination crack along interface between glass ceramic and steel; (c) Fe oxide formation

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Figure 7

Specific resistance as a function of the exposure time of a glass-ceramic sealant/ferritic steel sandwich sample with short-circuiting after a short period of exposure in hydrogen–air atmosphere at 800°C

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Figure 8

Specific resistance as a function of the exposure time of the glass-ceramic sealant/ferritic steel combination T1/GS-B, exposed in hydrogen/air atmosphere at 800°C

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Figure 9

SEM cross sections of specimen T1/GS-A exposed for 72h at 800°C in a hydrogen/air dual atmosphere. (a) Position 1: air side. (b) Position 2: hydrogen side.

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Figure 10

SEM cross sections of specimen T1/GS-C exposed for 400h at 800°C in a hydrogen/air dual atmosphere. (a) Position 1: air side. (b) Position 2: hydrogen side.

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Figure 11

Schematic illustration of the cell voltage output (a.u.) as a function of the exposure time (a.u.) in relation to the specific resistance (a.u.) of sandwich samples exposed under simulated SOFC stack conditions

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