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TECHNICAL PAPERS

Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Dynamical Modeling

[+] Author and Article Information
Sergio Bittanti

Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan, Italybittanti@elet.polimi.it

Silvia Canevese

Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan, Italycanevese@elet.polimi.it

Antonio De Marco

Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan, Italydemarco@mail2.elet.polimi.it

Giorgio Giuffrida

Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan, Italygiorgiogiuffrida@libero.it

Antonio Errigo

 CESI (Centro Elettrotecnico Sperimentale Italiano) S.p.A., Via R. Rubattino 54, 20134 Milan, Italyerrigo@cesi.it

Valter Prandoni

 CESI RICERCA (Centro Elettrotecnico Sperimentale Italiano) S.p.A., Via R. Rubattino 54, 20134 Milan, Italyprandoni@cesi.it

J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol 4(3), 283-293 (Apr 07, 2006) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2743074 History: Received November 30, 2005; Revised April 07, 2006

The aim of this work is to build up a complete dynamical model of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) stack, describing both the thermo-fluid-dynamical and the electrochemical phenomena involved, i.e., both slow and (relatively) fast dynamics. Following a first-principle approach, a set of differential and algebraic equations is written, based on mass, momentum, energy, and charge balance referred to as small control volumes inside a cell. The outlined two-three-dimensional description takes into account the strong point-to-point anode and cathode reaction coupling due to gas crossflow. Simulations (carried out after suitable thermodynamical and electrochemical parameter tuning) highlight, for instance, the presence of dynamics, linked to the electrochemical behavior, with time constants on the order of a second; besides, rather fair matching to data which can be found in the literature is achieved, in terms of external potential difference and of electric power production. The obtained numerical results, therefore, support model correctness and reliability. This is useful in view of model-based cell operation analysis and control, both in stationary and in transient conditions.

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Copyright © 2007 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 6

(Top left) Power and voltage experimental stationary profiles, as functions of the external current (from Ref. 41); (top right): the analogous profiles obtained by simulating the complete model for the CESI 150-cell stack; (bottom left): the θ variables as functions of the external current; (bottom right): single cell potential differences as functions of the external current

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Figure 5

Gext from 1500S to 0S, and from 0S to 1500S after 60s: θs, Helmholtz layer potential differences, neutral electrolyte potential difference and current, external potential difference, and current versus time (zoom from t=4950s to t=5100s)

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Figure 4

Gext from 1500S to 1470S: θs, Helmholtz layer potential differences, neutral electrolyte potential difference and current, external potential difference, and current versus time (zoom from t=4950s to t=5100s)

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Figure 3

Channel gas steady-state mass fractions for 1100A current (as for cathodic CO2, its mass fraction values are reported multiplied by 12 to improve readability)

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Figure 2

The Cartesian coordinates adopted for the electrochemical model

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Figure 1

(Top) The planar stratified structure of a single MCFC; notice the cross-flow of anode and cathode gases. (Bottom) (left) list, layer by layer, of the adopted thermo-fluid-dynamical equations (Sec. 2); (right) The external current as the sum of all single strip currents (Secs. 3,4; the Nernst potential is obtained in open-circuit steady-state conditions).

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