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Research Papers

Load Response Characteristics of the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell for Individual Cold-Region Houses

[+] Author and Article Information
Shin’ya Obara

 Tomakomai National College of Technology, 443 Nishikioka, Tomakomai 059-1275, Japanshinya@me.tomakomai-ct.ac.jp

J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol 5(1), 011005 (Jan 16, 2008) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2744054 History: Received April 05, 2006; Revised December 12, 2006; Published January 16, 2008

The power load pattern of an individual house is a set of loads that fluctuate rapidly. If it is controlled to follow a system at rapid load fluctuation, depending on the response characteristics of the system, the equipment may have poor power quality (voltage and frequency). When introducing a fuel cell system into a house, it is necessary to consider two transient response characteristics: electric power and heat power. Then, the details of the transient response characteristics of the fuel cell system composed from a reformer, a fuel cell, an inverter, a system interconnection device, etc., are investigated by experiment and numerical analysis. As a result, the control variables of the controllers and the relation to the response characteristics of the fuel cell system were clarified. Furthermore, the response characteristics of the system when accompanied by a load fluctuation of power were also clarified. The response characteristics when introducing the energy demand pattern of an individual cold-region house into a fuel cell system geothermal heat pump were analyzed. From this analysis result, the details of operation, including each auxiliary machine of the fuel cell system, were clarified.

Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

PEM fuel cell cogeneration system

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Figure 2

Cell performance generated with reformed gas and air. Operating temperature 333K, and reactant flow stoichiometries 2 both hydrogen and oxygen.

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Figure 3

The electric power output of system outlet. The areas of the electrode of anode and cathode of the fuel cell stack are 0.5m2, respectively. Reformer efficiency is 73%.

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Figure 4

Characteristic of heat output of geothermal heat pump system

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Figure 5

System operation model: (a) Electric power load, (b) heat load, (c) control system operation, (d) system power output, (e) heat output, (f) amount of heat storage, (g) amount of waste heat from the system, and (h) consumption of town gas

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Figure 6

Fuel cell stack test system

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Figure 7

The model of air exhaust-gas temperature of the fuel cell stack at the time of changing a load

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Figure 8

The approximate equation for the time constant of the transfer function

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Figure 9

The approximate equation for the constant of the transfer function

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Figure 10

Dynamic characteristics of a test PEM fuel cell stack: (a) result of fuel cell transient response test and (b) characteristics of transient response of a fuel cell

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Figure 11

Dynamic characteristics model of the reformer: (a) characteristics of reformer driving and (b) characteristics of transient response of the reformer

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Figure 12

Model of the burner exhaust gas heat at the time of a load going up from 50% to 100%

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Figure 13

Characteristics of transient response of the geothermal heat pump

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Figure 14

System control block diagram

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Figure 15

Block diagram of subsystem 0

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Figure 16

Block diagram of subsystems 1–8

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Figure 17

Characteristics of electric power output of the system: (a) Electric power load is 0.2kW, (b) electric power load is 0.6kW, and (c) electric power load is 1.0kW

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Figure 18

Characteristics of heat output of the geothermal heat pump system

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Figure 19

Analysis results of the fuel cell system with a geothermal heat pump: (a) Electric power output, (b) heat output in each device if heat load is 5kW, (c) consumption of power for the heat pump if electric power load is 1.0kW, and (d) consumption of town gas

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Figure 20

Analysis results of electric power output of the fuel cell system with load fluctuations: (a) Electric power load is 1.0kW±10%. (b) The error of a power integrated value if power load is 0.5kW±10%. P=5.0, I=1.0. (c) The error of a power integrated value if power load is 1kW±10%. P=12.0, I=1.0.

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Figure 21

Balance of productions of electricity

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Figure 22

Percentage of the integrated value of a response results to a load integrated value if a sampling time period is the operating for 200s

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Figure 23

Heat output of the geothermal heat pump system

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Figure 24

Calculation results of heat system in Sapporo: (a) Heat needs model in Sapporo, (b) heat output of the geothermal heat pump, (c) heat output of the fuel cell stack and the reformer, and (d) waste heat exhaust of PEM fuel cell cogeneration

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Figure 25

Calculation results of electric power system in Sapporo: (a) Electric power needs model in Sapporo and (b) electric power output of the PEM fuel cell cogeneration

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