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First China-Japan Workshop on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Thermochemical Stability of Sulfur Compounds in Fuel Cell Gases Related to Fuel Impurity Poisoning

[+] Author and Article Information
Kazunari Sasaki1

Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan; Hydrogen Technology Research Center, Kyushu University, Motooka 744, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japansasaki@mech.kyushu-u.ac.jp

1

Corresponding author.

J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol 5(3), 031212 (Jun 05, 2008) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2930769 History: Received September 02, 2007; Revised December 04, 2007; Published June 05, 2008

Since sulfur compounds are the major poisons of fuel cell systems, equilibrium concentrations of minor sulfur-based impurities in fuel cell fuels are thermochemically calculated in the temperature range between 400°C and 1000°C. As sulfur-based impurities in fuel cell gases, H2S(g), elementary sulfur, inorganic sulfur compounds, mercaptans, alkyl (di-)sulfides, thiophenes, and related compounds have been taken into account. Various types of fuels are also considered, including H2, H2CO, CO, CH4, biogas, liquidified petroleum gas, gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel. Among the 21 kinds of sulfur-based typical impurities considered, H2S(g) is the most stable sulfur-based species. COS(g) can also coexist, but even in CO-rich gases and in hydrocarbon-based fuels, COS concentration in equilibrium is one order or a few orders of magnitude lower than H2S concentration. Other sulfur compounds, such as CH4S(g) at intermediate temperatures and HS(g) and SO2(g) at high temperatures, are also expected to coexist but their concentrations are less than 1ppb (parts per billion) assuming thermochemical equilibrium.

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Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 1

Equilibrium compositions of (a) the hydrogen-based fuel, (b) the mixed H2 and CO fuel (H2:CO=1:1), and (c) the CO-based fuel, containing 20% H2O and 5ppmH2S, thermochemically calculated between 400°C and 1000°C. Concentrations (%) are shown in a logarithmic scale.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 2

Equilibrium compositions of the CH4-based fuel with the carbon-to-steam ratio (S/C) of (a) 1.0, (b) 2.5, and (c) 3.5, containing 5ppmH2S, thermochemically calculated between 400°C and 1000°C

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 3

Equilibrium composition of the hydrogen-based fuel containing 20% H2O and various sulfur compounds listed in Table 1, thermochemically calculated between 400°C and 1000°C. The total sulfur content was 5ppm.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 4

Equilibrium compositions of the CH4-based fuel with the carbon-to-steam ratio (S/C) of 2.5, containing various sulfur compounds listed in Table 1, thermochemically calculated between 400°C and 1000°C. The total sulfur content was 5ppm.

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 5

Equilibrium composition of a typical biogas (CH4:CO2=6:4) with the carbon-to-steam ratio (S/C) of 2.5, containing various sulfur compounds listed in Table 1, thermochemically calculated between 400°C and 1000°C

Grahic Jump Location
Figure 6

Equilibrium compositions of (a) the C3H8-based fuel, (b) the C8H18-based fuel, and (c) the C12H26-based fuel, with the carbon-to-steam ratio (S/C) of 2.5, containing various sulfur compounds listed in Table 1, thermochemically calculated between 400°C and 1000°C. The total sulfur content was 5ppm. These hydrocarbons, C3H8 (propane), C8H18 (iso-octane), and C12H26 (dodecane), are the major constituents of LP gas, gasoline, and kerosene, respectively.

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