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Research Papers

Selective Coating of Anatase and Rutile TiO2 on Carbon via Ultrasound Irradiation: Mitigating Fuel Cell Catalyst Degradation

[+] Author and Article Information
P. P. George, V. G. Pol, A. Gabashivili

Department of Chemistry and Kanbar Laboratory for Nanomaterials at the Bar-Ilan University Center for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel

A. Gedanken1

Department of Chemistry and Kanbar Laboratory for Nanomaterials at the Bar-Ilan University Center for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900, Israel

M. Cai1

General Motors, GM Research and Development Center, 30500 Mound Road, MC 480-106-269, Warren, MI 48090-9055

A. M. Mance, M. S. Ruthkosky

General Motors, GM Research and Development Center, 30500 Mound Road, MC 480-106-269, Warren, MI 48090-9055

L. Feng

General Motors,  Fuel Cell Activity Group, 30500 Mound Road, MC 480-106-269, Warren, MI 48090-9055

1

Corresponding authors.

J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol 5(4), 041012 (Sep 11, 2008) (9 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2890105 History: Received October 19, 2006; Revised July 15, 2007; Published September 11, 2008

Before mass produced automotive fuel cell technology can be made practical, the oxidative instability of the carbons currently, used as the catalyst support at the oxygen electrode, must be addressed. This article describes a method for coating carbon (Vulcan XC-72) with protective barriers of titanium dioxide (titania) and provides the results of physical characterization tests on those materials. By combining the sol-gel coating process with high intensity ultrasonication and choosing the appropriate precursor, either the anatase or rutile phases of titania can be produced. More complete coverage of the carbon was provided by the anatase process. Accelerated gas-phase oxidation tests showed that platinized, anatase-coated carbon oxidized at 15 the rate of untreated carbon while the rutile phase showed a mass loss of 13 that of untreated carbon.

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Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Resistivity measurement apparatus

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Figure 2

XRD patterns of ultrasonically prepared anatase and rutile Samples A and B. (a) Anatase TiO2∕C and (b) rutile TiO2∕C. Both crystalline phases are obtained at the same synthesis temperature of 353K.

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Figure 5

SEM photograph of (a) Sample A, anatase TiO2∕C and (b) Sample B, rutile TiO2∕C

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Figure 10

ORR curve of Sample A, anatase TiO2∕C with Pt loading of 3.4μg∕cm2

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Figure 9

HAD area measurement of Sample A, anatase TiO2∕C with total Pt loading of 3.4μg on a 6mm diameter electrode

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Figure 8

ORR curve of Sample B, rutile TiO2∕C with Pt loading of 55.7μg∕cm2

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Figure 7

HAD area measurement of Sample B, rutile TiO2∕C with total Pt loading of 15.8μg on a 6mm diameter electrode

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Figure 3

Adsorption (triangle)-desorption (square) isotherms of N2 for (a) Sample A, anatase TiO2∕C and (b) Sample B, rutile TiO2∕C

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Figure 6

The Ti2p region of the XPS spectrum for the (a) anatase TiO2 layer and (b) rutile TiO2 layer

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Figure 4

TEM photographs of (a) blank carbon, (b) anatase TiO2∕C, and (c) rutile TiO2∕C. (d)–(f) HRTEM photograph of anatase TiO2 coated on carbon. (e) represents the high magnification image of crystalline TiO2 (as shown by an arrow) coated on the carbon and the corresponding microdiffraction (f).

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