This paper presents an overview of the main advances in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) research and development (R&D), measurement standardization, and quality assurance in SOFC testing at the Forschungszentrum Jülich. These activities have resulted in both a significant improvement of the electrochemical performance and a better understanding of the electrochemical behavior of SOFCs. Research and development of SOFCs was mainly focused on two types of anode-supported cells, namely, those employing either (LSM) or (LSCF) cathode materials. In both cases the optimization of processing and microstructural parameters resulted in satisfactory power output and long-term stability at reduced operation temperatures. Standardization and quality assurance in SOFC testing was also addressed with the goal of producing consistent and reliable tests and measurement results. At present, under optimized experimental conditions, SOFCs with LSM or LSCF cathodes can deliver a power output of about and at (700 mV), respectively.