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Research Papers

A Multilevel Approach to the Energy Management of an Automotive Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell System

[+] Author and Article Information
Ivan Arsie

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Salerno, 1 Ponte don Melillo, Fisciano 84084, Italyiarsie@unisa.it

Alfonso Di Domenico

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Salerno, 1 Ponte don Melillo, Fisciano 84084, Italyadidomenico@unisa.it

Cesare Pianese

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Salerno, 1 Ponte don Melillo, Fisciano 84084, Italypianese@unisa.it

Marco Sorrentino1

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Salerno, 1 Ponte don Melillo, Fisciano 84084, Italymsorrentino@unisa.it

1

Corresponding author.

J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol 7(1), 011004 (Oct 06, 2009) (11 pages) doi:10.1115/1.3115622 History: Received June 18, 2007; Revised May 26, 2008; Published October 06, 2009

This paper deals with on-board energy management of hybrid fuel cell vehicles equipped with a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (FC) stack and a battery pack as main power source and hybridizing device, respectively. A multilevel architecture was conceived to separately manage on-board energy flows and mutual interaction between FC auxiliaries and powertrain components. At the highest-level, a splitting index map was designed to share the power requested by the driver among the fuel cell stack and batteries as function of traction power demand and batteries’ state of charge. At the intermediate-level are defined the set points at which to operate the fuel cell system (FCS) to achieve maximum efficiency. Then, at the low-level, specific control strategies are adopted to reach the set point as addressed by the intermediate-level. To guarantee the accuracy required for control strategy development, a mixed modeling approach was followed to simulate vehicle powertrain, FCS, electrochemistry, and water management. The simulations were carried out for a 60 kW FC powertrain running under severe transient maneuvers. The results show the potentialities of the proposed approach for energy management optimization, control, and diagnostics analyses.

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 2

Fuel cell system scheme

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Figure 3

Fuel cell system modeling scheme

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Figure 4

Screw compressor operating range (13)

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Figure 5

Multidimensional static maps for membrane water content (left) and net water flow (right) imbedded in the FCS model

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Figure 6

Scheme of water content spatial distribution through the membrane

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Figure 7

Membrane water content time constant as a function of membrane water content

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Figure 8

Fuel cell polarization curves as function of membrane water content, assuming constant cathode and anode pressure (i.e., 1.5 bars)

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Figure 9

Open-loop response of fuel cell voltage after current density step from 0.35 A/cm2 to 0.45 A/cm2

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Figure 10

Open-loop response of membrane water content after current density step from 0.35 A/cm2 to 0.45 A/cm2

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Figure 11

Optimal set point for cathode pressure (5)

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Figure 12

Required current as a function of power demand

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Figure 13

Intermediate-level control (dashed box) provides set points to the low-level control (dotted contour) composed of feed-forward and feedback tasks

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Figure 14

Feed-forward control map for the screw compressor

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Figure 15

Feed-forward maps for backpressure valve control

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Figure 16

Urban (upper) and suburban (lower) power profiles fed to the FCS model. These transients are part of a larger (10,000 s) and complex driving course (see Ref. 4 for details).

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Figure 17

Water content profile in electrodes’ volume and membrane during urban (upper) and suburban (lower) cycles

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Figure 18

Water flow crossing the membrane computed during urban and suburban routes (positive values of the flow indicate that water moves from the anode to the cathode)

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Figure 19

Feedback control on the cathode pressure

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Figure 20

Feedback control on the anode pressure

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Figure 21

Urban route—fuel cell system efficiency

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Figure 22

Suburban route—fuel cell system efficiency

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Figure 1

Energy flows of the hybrid fuel cell powertrain and corresponding multilevel control actions: vehicle management unit (VMU), driveline (DL), electric machine (EM) (motor/generator), batteries (B), current controller (CC), fuel cell-stack-controller (FCSC), compressor (comp.), humidifier (humid.), physical components (rectangular boxes), control/logic actions (rounded corner boxes), electrical node (circle), and degree of hybridization (DH) (4)

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