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Research Papers

Effects of Distributed Generation on Voltage Levels in a Radial Distribution Network Without Communication

[+] Author and Article Information
Allie E. Auld, Keyue M. Smedley, Scott Samuelsen

Advanced Power and Energy Program, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697

Jack Brouwer1

Advanced Power and Energy Program, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697

1

Corresponding author.

J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol 7(6), 061011 (Aug 24, 2010) (8 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4001050 History: Received October 19, 2009; Revised November 25, 2009; Published August 24, 2010; Online August 24, 2010

The challenges associated with incorporating a large amount of distributed generation (DG), including fuel cells, into a radial distribution feeder are examined using a dynamic MATLAB /SIMULINK ™ model. Two generic distribution feeder models are used to investigate possible scenarios where voltage problems may occur. Modern inverter topologies make ancillary services, such as on-demand reactive power generation/consumption economical to include, which expands the design space across which DG can function in the distribution system. The simulation platform enables testing of the following local control goals: DG connected with unity power factor, DG and load connected with unity power factor, DG connected with local voltage regulation (LVR), and DG connected with real power curtailment. Both the LVR and curtailment strategies can regulate the voltage of the simple circuit case, but the circuit utilizing a substation with load drop compensation has no universal solution. Even DG with a penetration level around 10% of rated circuit power can cause overvoltage problems with load drop compensation. The real power curtailment control strategy creates the best overall circuit efficiency, while all other control strategies result in low light load efficiency at high DG penetrations. The lack of a universal solution implies that some degree of communication will be needed to reliably install a large amount of DG on a distribution circuit.

Copyright © 2010 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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References

Figures

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Figure 1

Circuit schematic of distribution model

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Figure 2

Real/reactive power flow and voltage profile for Circuit A without DG at light and heavy load

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Figure 3

Real/reactive power flow and voltage profile for Circuit B without DG at light and heavy load

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Figure 4

Diagram of reactive power consumption by local voltage regulation control

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Figure 5

Voltage regulation cases for Circuit A: (a) baseline, (b) PFC, (c) LVR, and (d) curtailment

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Figure 6

Real/reactive power flow and voltage profile for Circuit A with 100% DG penetration at middle

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Figure 7

Circuit A, substation real power flow for baseline

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Figure 8

Circuit A, substation reactive power flow for baseline

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Figure 9

Circuit A, substation reactive power flow for LVR control

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Figure 10

Circuit A, substation real power flow for curtailment control

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Figure 11

Voltage regulation for Circuit B: (a) baseline, (b) PFC, (c) LVR, and (d) curtailment

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Figure 12

Real/reactive power flow and voltage profile for Circuit B with 100% DG penetration at middle

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Figure 13

Circuit B, substation real power flow for baseline

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Figure 14

Circuit B, substation reactive power flow for baseline

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Figure 15

Circuit B, substation reactive power flow for LVR control

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Figure 16

Circuit B, substation real power flow for curtailment control

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Figure 17

Circuit A, circuit efficiency for baseline control

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Figure 18

Circuit A, circuit efficiency for LVR control

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Figure 19

Circuit A, circuit efficiency for curtailment control

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Figure 20

Circuit B, circuit efficiency for baseline control

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Figure 21

Circuit B, circuit efficiency for local voltage regulation

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Figure 22

Circuit B, circuit efficiency for curtailment control

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