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Research Papers

Systems Modeling of Chemical Hydride Hydrogen Storage Materials for Fuel Cell Applications

[+] Author and Article Information
Kriston Brooks, Scot Rassat, Jamie Holladay

 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352

Maruthi Devarakonda1

 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Boulevard, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352maruthi.devarakonda@pnnl.gov

1

Corresponding author.

J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol 8(6), 061021 (Oct 05, 2011) (6 pages) doi:10.1115/1.4004477 History: Received May 26, 2011; Revised June 21, 2011; Published October 05, 2011; Online October 05, 2011

A fixed bed reactor was designed, modeled and simulated for hydrogen storage on-board the vehicle for PEM fuel cell applications. Ammonia borane was selected by DOE’s Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence as the initial chemical hydride of study because of its high hydrogen storage capacity (up to ∼16% by weight for the release of ∼2.5 molar equivalents of hydrogen gas) and its stability under typical ambient conditions. The design evaluated consisted of a tank with eight thermally isolated sections in which H2 flows freely between sections to provide ballast. Heating elements are used to initiate reactions in each section when pressure drops below a specified level in the tank. Reactor models in Excel and COMSOL were developed to demonstrate the proof-of-concept, which was then used to develop systems models in Matlab/Simulink. Experiments and drive cycle simulations showed that the storage system meets thirteen 2010 DOE targets in entirety and the remaining four at greater than 60% of the target.

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Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figures

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Figure 1

Solid works representation of the reaction vessel for hydrogen storage

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Figure 2

Schematic of a solid AB fixed bed reactor

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Figure 3

AB Temperature and H2 flow simulation results from COMSOL model

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Figure 4

Simulink systems model of a fixed bed reactor with a single section, ballast tank, hydrogen heat exchanger and a controller

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Figure 5

Flow rate profiles for H2 demand from the fuel cell, delivery to the fuel cell and production in the fixed bed reactor during US06 cycle

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Figure 6

Tank pressure, reactor temperature and H2 delivery temperature profiles during cold FTP cycle

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Figure 7

(a) Flow rate profiles of H2 demand from the fuel cell, delivery to the fuel cell and production in the fixed bed reactor and (b) Tank pressure, reactor temperature and H2 delivery temperature profiles during hot SC03 cycle

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