Research Papers

A Fuel Cell/Battery Hybrid Vehicle Modeling and Power Management/Regenerative Braking Controller Design

[+] Author and Article Information
P. Naderi

Electrical Engineering Department,
Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University,
Tehran, Iran 1678815811
e-mail: p.naderi@srttu.edu

M. Azizianfard

Science and Research Branch,
Power Engineering Group,
Islamic Azad University,
Borujerd, Iran 1631854441
e-mail: m.azizianfard@iaub.ac.ir

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FUEL CELL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received April 6, 2012; final manuscript received December 7, 2012; published online February 4, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Jacob Brouwer.

J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol 10(1), 011008 (Feb 04, 2013) (12 pages) Paper No: FC-12-1027; doi: 10.1115/1.4023384 History: Received April 06, 2012; Revised December 07, 2012

Here, a hybrid vehicle structure comprising fuel cell/battery and a PMDC electrical machine has been proposed, in which an intelligent controller is to perform power management and regenerative braking tasks. Instead of a gasoline engine, an electric machine fulfills the power demand from the vehicle during driving and braking modes. In addition, regenerative braking is possible in the proposed structure. The fuel cell is connected to a battery (DC bus) via a DC/DC converter which can control the fuel cell power/current with a switching strategy. A Nero–Fuzzy controller has been devised in order for taking the power demand as one of its controlling signals and making decision with respect to the power management issue. Duty cycle of the DC/DC converter is computed by the driving controller and applied with a certain switching frequency. Along with the power demand, braking pedal displacement, and the battery state of charge act as controlling signals, which allow the power management controller to perform pertinent analysis for power sharing decision between both the power sources. A threshold zone has been considered for braking pedal, according to which a regenerative torque is produced by the electrical machine. Finally, the simulation results have been considered from different point of views and evaluated, which shows a tenable achievement. Particularly, a series of driving maneuvers were applied to the vehicle, and the results show that the proposed structure has a promising performance as a civic automobile with zero emissions.

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Fig. 1

Proposed structure for fuel cell/battery hybrid vehicle

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Fig. 2

Half model of the vehicle

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Fig. 3

Mechanical parts modeling in simulink environment

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Fig. 4

A generic boost DC/DC converter schematic

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Fig. 5

Fuel cell current control by DC/DC converter switching

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Fig. 6

(a) Power sources modeling in simulink; (b) control of fuel cell current by a DC/DC converter in simulink

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Fig. 7

(a) Model of DC machine and its current-torque controller; (b) model of two quadrant motor controller for driving/regenerating operation

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Fig. 8

Throttle and braking pedals modeling

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Fig. 9

Mechanical diagram of electrical machine coupled

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Fig. 10

Membership functions of inputs

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Fig. 11

Output surface of the controller

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Fig. 12

The needed signals and related hardware

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Fig. 13

Power management controller for the proposed structure

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Fig. 16

Vehicle speed, Kp coefficient and gear number during acceleration maneuver

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Fig. 17

Power demand and fuel cell power during acceleration maneuver for various initial SoCs

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Fig. 18

Battery state of charge during the simulated maneuver

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Fig. 19

Vehicle speed, braking pedal, and SoC, during braking

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Fig. 20

Power of electrical machine and mechanical braking torque

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Fig. 21

A civic driving cycle, mechanical braking and shared powers in case that SoC (0) = 0.7

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Fig. 22

Braking pedal displacement and the SoC for two separate simulations

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Fig. 23

Electrical machine properties during driving

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Fig. 24

Battery properties during driving on a nonflat road




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