Research Papers

Evaluation of Protective La0.67Sr0.33MnO3–δ Coatings on Various Stainless Steels Used for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnects

[+] Author and Article Information
Jian-Jia Huang

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
National Central University,
Chung-li, 320 Taiwan, ROC

Chun-Lin Chu

National Nano Device Laboratories,
Hsinchu, 300 Taiwan ROC
e-mail: jenlen.boy@msa.hinet.net

Tien-Chan Chang

Institute of Nuclear Energy Research,
Longtan, Taoyuan 32546, Taiwan ROC

Shyong Lee

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
National Central University,
Chung-li, 320 Taiwan, R. O. C.

Jung-Yen Yang

National Nano Device Laboratories,
Hsinchu, 300 Taiwan R. O. C.

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FUEL CELL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received October 2, 2012; final manuscript received December 19, 2012; published online March 21, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Masashi Mori.

J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol 10(2), 021004 (Mar 21, 2013) (6 pages) Paper No: FC-12-1099; doi: 10.1115/1.4023579 History: Received October 02, 2012; Revised December 19, 2012

Four metallic alloys, namely 2205 duplex stainless steel (2205DSS), ZMG232, and stainless steels SS430 and SS304 are investigated for use as interconnects in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). A La0.67Sr0.33MnO3–δ (LSMO) film is deposited on these metallic-alloy substrates using a pulsed-DC magnetron sputtering system in the reactive mode, leading to the formation of a cubic perovskite structure. The coated alloys are then subjected to oxidizing heat treatments in air at 600 °C, 700 °C, 800 °C, and 900 °C, and their microstructures as well as electrical resistances are evaluated. The electrical resistance measurements are performed at 800 °C, and the area-specific resistance (ASR) of the film-coated 2205DSS alloy is found to be less than that of the uncoated alloy. This is because a thick layer of Cr2O3 and a (Mn, Fe)Cr2O4 spinel phase layer are formed, and some divalent metallic ions migrate into the Cr2O3 layer. It is found that alloys coated with a thin film of LSMO are more suitable for use as metallic interconnects in SOFCs with intermediate-temperature operating ranges.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Will, J., Mitterdorfer, A., Kleinlogel, C., Perednis, D., and Gauckler, L. J., 2000, “Fabrication of Thin Electrolytes for Second-Generation Solid Oxide Fuel Cells,” Solid State Ionics, 131, pp. 79–96. [CrossRef]
Zhu, W. Z., and Deevi, S. C., 2003, “Development of Interconnect Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A, 348, pp. 227–243. [CrossRef]
Lim, D. P., Lim, D. S., Oh, J. S., and Lyo, I. W., 2005, “Influence of Post-Treatments on the Contact Resistance of Plasma-Sprayed La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 Coating on SOFC Metallic Interconnector,” Surf. Coat. Technol., 200, pp. 1248–1251. [CrossRef]
Fu, C., Sun, K., and Zhou, D., 2006, “Effects of La0.8Sr(0.2)Mn(Fe)O3–δ Protective Coatings on SOFC Metallic Interconnects,” J. Rare Earths, 24, pp. 320–326. [CrossRef]
Geng, S. J., Zhu, J. H., and Lu, Z. G., 2006, “Evaluation of Several Alloys for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnect Application,” Scripta Mater., 55, pp. 239–242. [CrossRef]
Chu, C. L., Wang, J. Y., Lee, R. Y., Lee, T. H., and Lee, S., 2009, “Oxidation Behavior of Various Metallic Alloys for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Interconnect,” J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol., 6, 031013. [CrossRef]
Jiang, S. P., Zhen, Y. D., and Zhang, S., 2006, “Interaction Between Fe-Cr Metallic Interconnect and (La,Sr)MnO3/YSZ Composite Cathode of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 153, pp. A1511–A1517. [CrossRef]
Fergus, J. W., 2007, “Effect of Cathode and Electrolyte Transport Properties on Chromium Poisoning in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 32, pp. 3664–3671. [CrossRef]
Brylewski, T., Nanko, M., Maruyama, T., and Przybylski, K., 2001, “Interface Reactions Between Conductive Ceramic Layers and Fe-Cr Steel Substrates in SOFC Operating Conditions,”Solid State Ionics, 143, pp. 131–150. [CrossRef]
Zhu, W. Z., and Deevi, S. C., 2003, “Opportunity of Metallic Interconnects for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: A Status on Contact Resistance,” Mater. Res. Bull., 38, pp. 1531–1536. [CrossRef]
Qu, W., Li, J., and Ivey, D. G., 2004, “Sol-Gel Coatings to Reduce Oxide Growth in Interconnects Used for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells,” J. Power Sources, 138, pp. 162–173. [CrossRef]
Kim, J. H., Song, R. H., and Hyun, S. H., 2004, “Effect of Slurry-Coated LaSrMnO3 on the Electrical Property of Fe-Cr Alloy for Metallic Interconnect of SOFC,” Solid State Ionics174, pp. 185–191. [CrossRef]
Burriel, M., Garcia, G., Santiso, J., Hansson, A. N., Linderoth, S., and Figueras, A., 2005, “Co3O4 Protective Coatings Prepared by Pulsed Injection Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition,” Thin Solid Films, 473, pp. 98–103. [CrossRef]
Pryds, N., Toftmann, B., Schou, J., Hendriksen, P. V., Linderoth, S., 2005, “Electrical and Structural Properties of La0.8Sr0.2Mn0.5Co0.5O3±δ Films Produced by Pulsed Laser Deposition,” Appl. Surf. Sci., 247, pp. 466–470. [CrossRef]
Yang, Z., Xia, G. G., Li, X. H., and Stevenson, J. W., 2006, “(Mn,Co)3O4 Spinel Coatings on Ferritic Stainless Steels for SOFC Interconnect Applications,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 32, pp. 3648–3654. [CrossRef]
Brylewski, T., Nanko, M., Maruyama, T., and Przybylski, K., 2003, “Microstructure of Fe-25Cr/(La, Ca)CrO3 Composite Interconnector in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Operating Conditions,” Mater. Chem. Phys., 81, pp. 434–437. [CrossRef]
Qu, W., Jian, L., Hill, M. J., and Ivey, D. G., 2006, “Electrical and Microstructural Characterization of Spinel Phases as Potential Coatings for SOFC Metallic Interconnects,” J. Power Sources, 153, pp. 114–124. [CrossRef]
Chu, C. L., Wang, J. Y., and Lee, S., 2008, “Effects of La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 Protective Coating on SOFC Interconnect by Plasma-Sputtering,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 33, pp. 2536–2546. [CrossRef]
Horita, T., Xiong, Y., Yamaji, K., Sakai, N., and Yokokawa, H., 2003, “Evaluation of Laves-Phase Forming Fe-Cr Alloy for SOFC Interconnects in Reducing Atmosphere,” J. Power Sources, 118, pp. 35–43. [CrossRef]
Holcomb, G. R., and Alman, D. E., 2006, “Effect of Manganese Addition on Reactive Evaporation of Chromium in Ni-Cr Alloys,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform., 15, pp. 394–398. [CrossRef]
Holcomb, G. R., and Alman, D. E., “The Effect of Manganese Additions on the Reactive Evaporation of Chromium in Ni-Cr Alloys,” Scr. Mater., 54, pp. 1821–1825. [CrossRef]
Lee, S., Chu, C. L., Gwo, J., Huang, J. J., Tsai, M. J., and Wang, S. M., 2011, “Effects of Bias on Properties of Ti-C:H Films Coated by Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc,” Surf. Eng., 27, pp. 531–535. [CrossRef]
Ebrahimifar, H., and Zandrahimi, M., 2011, “Mn Coating on AISI 430 Ferritic Stainless Steel by Pack Cementation Method for SOFC Interconnect Applications,” Solid State Ionics, 183, pp. 71–79. [CrossRef]
Zhou, X., Wang, P., Liu, L., Sun, K., Gao, Z., and Zhang, N., 2009, “Improved Electrical Performance and Sintering Ability of the Composite Interconnect La0.7Ca0.3CrO3-δ/Ce0.8Nd0.2O1.9 for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells,” J. Power Sources, 191, pp. 377–383. [CrossRef]
Hou, P. Y., Haung, K., and Bakker, W. T., 1999, “Promises and Problems With Metallic Interconnects for Reduced Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells,” Proceedings of 6th International Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, S. C.Singhal, M.Dokiya, eds., The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The pulsed-dc magnetron sputtering system used in this study

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic drawing of the setup used for the resistivity measurements

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

X-ray diffraction patterns of the LSMO coatings on the surfaces of the oxidized alloys processed at different temperatures and for different times: (a) 2205DSS, (b) ZMG232, (c) SS430, and (d) SS304

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

SEM micrographs (depicting the surface morphologies) of the LSMO coated alloys: (a)–(d) SS304; (e)–(h) SS430, (i)–(l) ZMG232, and (m)–(p) 2205DSS after aging at 600 °C, 700 °C, and 800 °C for time periods ranging from 1 h to 200 h. The substrates shown in Figs. 4(a), 4(e), 4(i), and 4(m) were oxidized at 600 °C for 1 h in air; the substrates shown in Figs. 4(b), 4(f), 4(j), and 4(n) were oxidized at 700 °C for 1 h in air; the substrates shown in Figs. 4(c), 4(g), 4(k), and 4(o) were oxidized at 800 °C for 1 h in air; and the substrates shown in Figs. 4(d), 4(h), 4(i), and 4(p) were oxidized at 800 °C for 200 h in hot air.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

SEM surface morphologies of LSMO coated (a) 2205DSS; (b) ZMG232; (c) SS430, and (d) SS304 oxidized at 1 h for 700 °C

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Weight gain as function of oxidation time for 2205DSS alloys at 800 °C for 25 h in hot air

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Micrographs of the oxide scales/alloy interface for (a) 2205DSS, (b) ZMG232, (c) SS430, and (d) SS304 after being oxidized at 800 °C for 200 h. Results of the EDS linear analysis of the cross-sectional areas are also included.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Area-specific resistance of the Fe-Cr based alloys as a function of temperature. The resistance is inversely proportional to the temperature.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Arrhenius plots of LSM-coated 2205DSS, ZMG232, SS430, and SS304 during heating at elevated temperatures in hot air




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In