0
Research Papers

Three-Dimensional Simulation-Based Optimum Design of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell System

[+] Author and Article Information
Singiresu S. Rao

Professor

Saif Matar

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering,
University of Miami,
Coral Gables, FL 33124-0624

1Corresponding author.

2Present address: Advanced Solution Engineer, Ingersoll Rand Residential Solutions, Tyler, TX.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology. Manuscript received November 16, 2011; final manuscript received February 12, 2013; published online March 26, 2013. Editor: Nigel M. Sammes.

J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol 10(2), 021008 (Mar 26, 2013) (10 pages) Paper No: FC-11-1152; doi: 10.1115/1.4023836 History: Received November 16, 2011; Revised February 12, 2013

A three-dimensional, single-phase, multicomponent mathematical model is used for the analysis of a liquid-fed direct methanol fuel cell. Liquid phase is considered on the anode side, and gas phase is considered on the cathode side. The electrochemical kinetics, continuity, momentum, and species transport for methanol, water, and oxygen are all coupled to solve for different optimization scenarios. The effect of methanol crossover due to diffusion and electro-osmotic drag is incorporated into the model. A finite-volume-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code is used for the analysis and simulation of the performance of the fuel cell. The analysis model is coupled with the genetic algorithm and sequential quadratic programming optimization technique in seeking the global optimum solution of the fuel cell. Three optimization problems are considered. In the first problem, the maximization of the power density of the fuel cell with lower and upper bounds on the design variables is considered. The second problem considers the maximization of the power density with a constraint on the minimum allowable operating voltage as well as lower and upper bounds on the design variables. In the third problem, the minimization of the cost of the fuel cell is considered with constraints on the minimum allowable operating voltage and the minimum permissible power density as well as lower and upper bounds on the design variables. The performance characteristics of the optimum fuel cell, in the form of graphs of polarization (voltage versus current density), power density versus current density, power density versus voltage, methanol crossover versus current density, and methanol crossover versus voltage are presented and explained to help designers better understand the significance of the optimization results.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Grujicic, M., and Chittajallu, K. M., 2003, “Design and Optimization of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells,” Appl. Surf. Sci., 227, pp. 56–72. [CrossRef]
Mawardi, A., Yang, F., and Pitchumani, R., 2005, “Optimization of the Operating Parameters of a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell for Maximum Power Density,” ASME J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol., 2, pp. 121–135. [CrossRef]
Ou, S., and Achenie, L. E. K., 2005, “Artificial Neural Network Modeling of PEM Fuel Cells,” ASME J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol., 2, pp. 226–233. [CrossRef]
Chen, K. I., Winnick, J., and Manousiouthakis, V. I., 2006, “Global Optimization of a Simple Mathematical Model for a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell,” Comput. Chem. Eng., 30, pp. 1226–1234. [CrossRef]
Ang.S. M. C., Brett, D. J. L., and Fraga, E. S., 2010, “A Multi-Objective Optimization Model for a General Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell System,” J. Power Sources, 195(9), pp. 2754–2763. [CrossRef]
Zhang, Z., Wang, X., Zhang, X., and Jia, L., 2008, “Optimizing the Performance of a Single PEM Fuel Cell,” ASME J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol., 5, p. 031007. [CrossRef]
Secanell, M., Carnes, B., Suleman, A., and Djilali, N., 2006, “Numerical Optimization of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Cathodes,” Electrochim. Acta, 52, pp. 2668–2682. [CrossRef]
Secanell, M., Karan, K., Suleman, A., and Djilali, N., 2008, “Optimal Design of Ultralow-Platinum PEMFC Anode Electrodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 155, pp. B125–B134. [CrossRef]
Chetty, R., Scott, K., Kundu, S., and Muhler, M., 2010, “Optimization of Mesh-Based Anodes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells,” ASME J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol., 7, p. 031011. [CrossRef]
Peng, L., Lai, X., Yi, P., Mai, J., and Ni, J., 2011, “Design, Optimization, and Fabrication of Slotted-Interdigitated Thin Metallic Bipolar Plates for PEM Fuel Cells,” ASME J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol., 8, p. 011002. [CrossRef]
Xu, C., Follmann, P. M., Biegler, L.T., and Jhon, M. S., 2005, “Numerical Simulation and Optimization of a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell,” Comput. Chem. Eng., 29, pp. 1849–1860. [CrossRef]
Yeh, T. K., and Chen, C. H., 2008, “Modeling and Optimizing the Performance of a Passive Direct Methanol Fuel Cell,” J. Power Sources, 175, pp. 353–362. [CrossRef]
Ko, D., Lee, M., Jang, W. H., and Krewer, U., 2008, “Non-Isothermal Dynamic Modeling and Optimization of a Direct Methanol Fuel Cell,” J. Power Sources, 180, pp. 71–83. [CrossRef]
Alotto, P., Guarnieri, M., and Moro, F., 2009, “Optimal Design of Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cells for Low-Power Applications,” IEEE Trans. Magn., 45(3), pp. 1570–1573. [CrossRef]
Basri, S., Kamarudin, S. K., Daud, W. R. W., and Ahmad, M. M., 2010, “Non-Linear Optimization of Passive Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC),” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 35, pp. 1759–1768. [CrossRef]
Woudstra, N., van der Stelt, T. P., and Hemmes, K., 2006, “The Thermodynamic Evaluation and Optimization of Fuel Cell Systems,” ASME J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol., 3, pp. 155–164. [CrossRef]
Elliott, L., Anderson, W. K., and Kapadia, S., 2009, “Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Design Optimization With Numerical Adjoint Techniques,” ASME J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol., 6, p. 041018. [CrossRef]
Funahashi, Y., Shimamori, T., Suzuki, T., Fujishiro, Y., and Awano, M., 2010, “Simulation Study for the Optimization of Microtubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Bundles,” ASME J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol., 7, p. 021015. [CrossRef]
Wang, Z. H., and Wang, C. Y., 2003, “Mathematical Modeling of Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol Fuel Cell,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 150(4), pp. A508–A519. [CrossRef]
Ge, J., and Liu, H., 2006, “A Three-Dimensional Mathematical Model for Liquid-Fed Direct Methanol Fuel Cells,” J. Power Sources, 160, pp. 412–421. [CrossRef]
Ge, J., and Liu, H., 2007, “A Three-Dimensional Two-Phase Flow Model for a Liquid-Fed Direct Methanol Fuel Cell,” J. Power Sources, 163, pp. 907–915. [CrossRef]
Liu, W., and Wang, C., 2007, “Three-Dimensional Simulations of Liquid Feed Direct Methanol Fuel Cells,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 154(3), pp. B352–B361. [CrossRef]
Yang, H., Zhao, T. S., and Ye, Q., 2005, “In Situ Visualization Study of CO2 Gas Bubble Behavior in DMFC Anode Fields,” J. Power Sources, 139, pp. 79–90. [CrossRef]
Zhou, T., and Liu, H., 2001, “A General Three-Dimensional Model for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells,” Int. J. Transp. Phenom., 3, pp. 177–198.
O'Hayre, R., Cha, S. W., Colella, W., and Prinz, F. B., 2006, Fuel Cell Fundamentals, 1st ed., Wiley, New York.
Marr, C., and Li, X., 1999, “Composition and Performance Modeling of Catalyst Layer in a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell,” J. Power Sources, 77(1), pp. 17–27. [CrossRef]
Alfa, 2011, “Alfa Aesar,” www.alfa.com
Goldberg, D. E., 1989, Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.
Rao, S. S., Pan, T. S., and Venkayya, V. B., 1991, “Optimal Placement of Actuators in Actively Controlled Structures Using Genetic Algorithms,” AIAA J., 29, pp. 942–943. [CrossRef]
Rao, S. S., 2009, Engineering Optimization: Theory and Practice, Wiley, New York.
Shukla, A. K., Jackson, K., Scott, K., and Murgia, G., 2002, “A Solid-Polymer Electrolyte Direct Methanol Fuel Cell With a Mixed Reactant and Air Anode,” J. Power Sources, 111, pp. 42–51. [CrossRef]
Scott, K., Argyropouos, P., and Sundmacher, K., 1999, “A Model for the Liquid Feed Direct Methanol Fuel Cell,” J. Electroanal. Chem., 477, pp. 97–110. [CrossRef]
Bernardy, D. M., and Verbrugge, M. W., 1992, “Mathematical Model of the Solid-Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cell,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 139(9), pp. 2477–2491. [CrossRef]
Baxter, S. F., Battaglia, V. S., and White, R. E., 1999, “Methanol Fuel Cell Model: Anode,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 146(2), pp. 437–447. [CrossRef]
Cai, K., Yin, G., Zhang, J., Liu, P., and Wang, Z., 2005, “Effect of Different Types of Nafion Membranes on Direct Dimethyl Ether Fuel Cell,” Electrochem. Commun., 7, 1385–1388. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of the modeling domain

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Polarization curves for the optimum designs

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Power density versus current density curves of the optimum designs

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Power destiny versus voltage curves for the optimum designs

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Methanol crossover versus current density curves for the optimum designs

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Methanol crossover versus voltage curves for optimum designs

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In