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Research Papers

Long-Term SOFCs Button Cell Testing

[+] Author and Article Information
Gianfranco DiGiuseppe

e-mail: gdigiuse@kettering.edu

Li Sun

Kettering University,
Mechanical Engineering Dept.,
1700 West Third Avenue,
Flint, MI 48504

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FUEL CELL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received April 10, 2013; final manuscript received October 18, 2013; published online December 5, 2013. Assoc. Editor: Dr Masashi Mori.

J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol 11(2), 021007 (Dec 05, 2013) (5 pages) Paper No: FC-13-1034; doi: 10.1115/1.4025924 History: Received April 10, 2013; Revised October 18, 2013

This paper reports a new study where relatively long-term tests of about a 1000 h are performed on several planar anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells. The cell electrochemical behaviors are studied by using voltage-current density measurement, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The cell total polarization obtained from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results is shown to be consistent with the area-specific resistance calculated from the voltage-current density curve over the course of the test. In addition, a four-constant phase element model is used to analyze the cell components resistances at different intervals over the lifetime of the test. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy are used postmortem to determine if any damages occurred to the cells and to determine if any change in composition occurred to the lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite cathode. This study shows that the tested cells remain stable with a relatively small increase in the cell total polarization but with no increase in ohmic resistance.

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References

Steele, B. C. H., and Heinzel, A., 2001, “Materials for Fuel-Cell Technologies,” Nature, 414, pp. 345–352. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Dokiya, M., 2002, “SOFC System and Technology,” Solid State Ionics, 152–153, pp. 383–392. [CrossRef]
Singhal, S. C., 2002, “Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Stationary, Mobile, and Military Applications,” Solid State Ionics, 152–153, pp. 405–410. [CrossRef]
Yamomoto, O., 2000, “Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Fundamental Aspects and Prospects,” Electrochimica Acta, 45, pp. 2423–2435. [CrossRef]
Minh, N. Q., and Takahashi, T., 1995, Science and Technology of Ceramic Fuel Cells, Elsevier, New York, Chap. 5.
William, M. C., Strakey, J. P., Surdoval, W. A., and Wilson, L. C., 2006, “Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology Development in the U. S,” Solid State Ionics, 177, pp. 2039–2044. [CrossRef]
Yokokawa, H., Tu, H., Iwanschitz, B., and Mai, A., 2008, “Fundamental Mechanisms Limiting Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Durability,” J. Power Sources, 182, pp. 400–412. [CrossRef]
McIntosh, S., Adler, S. B., Vohs, J. M., and Gorte, R. J., 2004, “Effect of Polarization on and Implications for Characterization of LSM-YSZ Composite Cathodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett., 7, A111–A114. [CrossRef]
McEvoy, A., 2003, Handbook of Fuel Cells-Fundamentals, Technology and Applications, Vol. 2: Electrocatalysis, W.Vielstish, H. A.Gasteiger, A.Lamm, eds., John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, Chap. 27.
DiGiuseppe, G., and Sun, L., 2010, “Electrochemical Characterization and Mechanisms of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Under Different Applied Voltages,” 8th International Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology Conference (FuelCell2010), Brooklyn, NY, June 14–16, ASME Paper No. FuelCell2010-33249. [CrossRef]
DiGiuseppe, G., and Sun, L., 2011, “Electrochemical Performance of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell With an LSCF Cathode Under Different Oxygen Concentrations,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 36, pp. 5076–5087. [CrossRef]

Figures

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Fig. 2

ASR of cell 2, cell 3, and cell 4 as a function of testing time

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Fig. 1

Cell voltages and temperatures as a function of time at different current densities (cell 1: 0 mAcm−2, cell 2: 300 mAcm−2, cell 3: 600 mAcm−2, and cell 4: 1200 mAcm−2)

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Fig. 3

Nyquist plots of the tested cells at OCV and different time intervals

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Fig. 6

SEM pictures of (a) cell 1, (b) cell 2, (c) cell 3, and (d) cell 4

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Fig. 5

R0 to R4 values for cell 4 impedance at different testing times

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Fig. 4

CNLS fitting result of the impedance data for cell 4 before loading current and the four CPEs equivalent electrical circuit model

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Fig. 7

Current density effects on the cathode concentration

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