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Research Papers

Synthesis and Characterization of Nafion-ZrOH-CaO Hybrid Membrane for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

[+] Author and Article Information
Vahid Mazinani, Milad Rezaei, Mahdiyeh Mallahi, Mohsen Mohammadijoo, Hamid Omidvar

Department of Mining
and Metallurgical Engineering,
Amirkabir University of Technology
(Tehran Polytechnic),
Hafez Ave., P.O. Box 15875–4413,
Tehran, Iran

SeyedHadi Tabaian

Department of Mining
and Metallurgical Engineering,
Amirkabir University of Technology
(Tehran Polytechnic),
Hafez Ave., P.O. Box 15875–4413,
Tehran, Iran
e-mail: tabaian@aut.ac.ir

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FUEL CELL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received June 9, 2012; final manuscript received November 22, 2013; published online January 24, 2014. Assoc. Editor: Abel Hernandez-Guerrero.

J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol 11(3), 031004 (Jan 24, 2014) (6 pages) Paper No: FC-12-1054; doi: 10.1115/1.4026142 History: Received June 09, 2012; Revised November 22, 2013

Nafion-CaO, Nafion-ZrOH, and Nafion-CaO-ZrOH membranes are fabricated in order to improve proton conductivity, thermal stability, and mechanical properties as well as decrease methanol crossover in direct methanol fuel cells. The ion exchange method is utilized to incorporate Ca and Zr into Nafion membranes. Prepared membranes are characterized by using absorption transmission reflectance (ATR) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. Methanol crossover decreases significantly for all fabricated membranes. Nafion-CaO and Nafion-CaO-ZrOH membranes exhibit a 10 and 6 time increase in proton conductivity compared to Nafion (0.08 Scm–1), while the proton conductivity of Nafion-ZrOH decreases. The elastic modulus enhance from 48 MPa for Nafion to 60, 78, and 90 MPa for Nafion-CaO, Nafion-ZrOH, and Nafion-CaO-ZrOH membranes. In addition, the thermal stability of Nafion (360 °C) increases to 407, 457, and 470 °C for fabricated membranes.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

A schematic setup for methanol crossover measurement

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Fig. 2

EDS spectrum of the Nafion-ZrOH-CaO membrane

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Fig. 3

ATR diagram of pure Nafion

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Fig. 4

ATR diagrams for pure Nafion, Nafion-ZrOH, Nafion-CaO, and Nafion-ZrOH-CaO membranes

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Fig. 5

The amount of methanol passed through membranes at the various times

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Fig. 6

Nyquist diagrams of the different membranes obtained by two-electrode EIS experiment

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Fig. 7

The stress-strain diagrams of different Nafion membranes

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Fig. 8

The thermogravimetric curves obtained for different Nafion composite membranes

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