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Research Papers

Effect of Nonionic, Anionic, and Cationic Surfactants on the Sol Gel Synthesis of IrO-Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ Nanocomposite for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Application

[+] Author and Article Information
Njoku. B. Chima

Department of Chemistry,
School of Chemistry and Physics,
University of KwaZulu-Natal,
Westville Campus, Durban,
Private Bag X54001,
Durban 4000, South Africa
e-mail: 213570061@stu.ukzn.ac.za

Ndungu. G. Patrick

Department of Chemistry,
School of Chemistry and Physics,
University of KwaZulu-Natal,
Westville Campus, Durban,
Private Bag X54001,
Durban 4000, South Africa
e-mail: Ndungup@ukzn.ac.za

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FUEL CELL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received February 13, 2014; final manuscript received March 1, 2014; published online May 6, 2014. Editor: Nigel M. Sammes.

J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol 11(4), 041010 (May 06, 2014) (9 pages) Paper No: FC-14-1021; doi: 10.1115/1.4027366 History: Received February 13, 2014; Revised March 01, 2014

The sol-gel technique is a versatile and relatively simple method, easily adapted to synthesize complex metal oxide formulations. The sol-gel technique takes advantage of the structural directing properties and templating characteristics of nonionic, anionic, and cationic surfactants to produce porous iridium oxide with samarium doped ceria (SDC) nanoparticles. The nanopowders were calcined at a temperature of 950 °C and the crystalline nanostructures and compositions were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The textural characteristics and particle morphology were respectively characterized by nitrogen sorption at 77.5 K and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties were characterized by using Kittec squadro, solid oxide fuel cell testing equipment, with air and hydrogen as the gases used. The nature of the surfactant influenced the particle morphology, pore diameter, pore size, crystallite size, surface area, and electrochemical properties.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematics of the chelation of the acacH ligands to transition metal ions

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Fig. 2

The FTIR spectra of the F127, SDS, CTAB, P123, PEG, and WS surfactants added to IrO-Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ calcined at 950 °C

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Fig. 3

The X-ray diffraction pattern of (a) F127, (b) SDS, (c) PEG, (d) P123, (e) CTAB, and (f) WS surfactants added to IrO-Ce0.8Sm0.2O2 and calcined at 950 °C

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Fig. 4

The low magnification, lattice fringes, and diffraction pattern of the high resolution TEM image for (a) F127, (b) SDS, (c) CTAB, (d) PEG, (e) P123, and (f) WS surfactants added to IrO-Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ and calcined at 950 °C

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Fig. 5

The morphology of (a) F127, (b) CTAB, (c) SDS, (d) WS, (e) P123, and (f) PEG added to IrO-Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ and calcined at 950 °C

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Fig. 6

The isotherm plots for (a) WS, (b) F127, (c) CTAB, (d) P123, (e) PEG, and (f) SDS added to IrO-Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ and calcined at 950 °C

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Fig. 7

The pore size distribution of (a) F127, (b) P123, (c) PEG, (d) CTAB, (e) SDS, and (f) WS added to IrO-Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ and calcined at 950 °C

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Fig. 8

The polarization resistance graph of (a) PEG, (b) F127, (c) WS, (d) CTAB, (e) P123, and (f) SDS added to IrO-Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ and calcined at 950 °C

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Fig. 9

The polarization curve, ohmic overpotential, and concentration overpotential of PEG added to IrO-Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ and calcined at 950 °C

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Fig. 10

The polarization curve, ohmic overpotential, and concentration overpotential of WS added to IrO-Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ and calcined at 950 °C

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Fig. 11

The polarization curve, ohmic overpotential, and concentration overpotential of CTAB added to IrO-Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ and calcined at 950 °C

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Fig. 12

The polarization curve, ohmic overpotential, and concentration overpotential of P123 added to IrO-Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ and calcined at 950 °C

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Fig. 13

The polarization curve, ohmic overpotential, and concentration overpotential of SDS added to IrO-Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ and calcined at 950 °C

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Fig. 14

The polarization curve, ohmic overpotential, and concentration overpotential of F127 added to IrO-Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ and calcined at 950 °C

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Fig. 15

The power density graph of (a) F127, (b) P123, (c) SDS, (d) CTAB, (e) WS, and (f) PEG added to IrO-Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ and calcined at 950 °C, (e) WS, and (f) PEG added to IrO-Ce0.8Sm0.2O2-δ and calcined at 950 °C

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