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Research Papers

# Evaluation of Cathode Air Flow Transients in a SOFC/GT Hybrid System Using Hardware in the Loop Simulation

[+] Author and Article Information
Nana Zhou

College of Power Engineering,
Chongqing University,
No. 174 Shazhengjie, Shapingba,
Chongqing 400044, China
e-mail: zhounana.cqu@gmail.com

Chen Yang

College of Power Engineering,
Chongqing University,
No. 174 Shazhengjie, Shapingba,
Chongqing 400044, China
e-mail: yxtyc@cqu.edu.cn

David Tucker

U.S. Department of Energy,
National Energy Technology Laboratory,
Morgantown, WV 26507
e-mail: David.Tucker@netl.doe.gov

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FUEL CELL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received May 29, 2014; final manuscript received August 4, 2014; published online November 25, 2014. Editor: Nigel M. Sammes.

This material is declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol 12(1), 011003 (Feb 01, 2015) (7 pages) Paper No: FC-14-1068; doi: 10.1115/1.4028950 History: Received May 29, 2014; Revised August 04, 2014; Online November 25, 2014

## Abstract

Thermal management in the fuel cell component of a direct fired solid oxide fuel cell gas turbine (SOFC/GT) hybrid power system can be improved by effective management and control of the cathode airflow. The disturbances of the cathode airflow were accomplished by diverting air around the fuel cell system through the manipulation of a hot-air bypass valve in open loop experiments, using a hardware-based simulation facility designed and built by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The dynamic responses of the fuel cell component and hardware component of the hybrid system were studied in this paper.

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## Figures

Fig. 1

Hybrid performance facility at NETL

Fig. 2

Cathode inlet air mass flow (FE-380) transient as a function of time

Fig. 3

Transient of cathode inlet conditions and turbine speed

Fig. 4

(a) Transients of system cathode inlet air flow (FE-380), fuel flow (FX-432) and turbine speed (ST-502): long term scale and (b) transients of system cathode inlet air flow (FE-380), fuel flow (FX-432) and turbine speed (ST-502): short time scale

Fig. 5

(a) Gas temperature in 20 nodes in the cathode during cathode inlet airflow decrease: 3D figure and (b) gas temperature in 20 nodes in the cathode during cathode inlet airflow decrease: 2D figure

Fig. 6

Transient of the temperature difference between solid and gas

Fig. 7

(a) Solid temperature in 20 nodes in the cathode during cathode inlet airflow decrease: 3D figure and (b) solid temperature in 20 nodes in the cathode during cathode inlet airflow decrease: 2D figure

Fig. 8

Solid temperature transients in 20 nodes in the cathode during cathode inlet airflow decrease when the heat capacity scale was set as 0.001

Fig. 9

The rate of the solid temperature difference in selected node

Fig. 10

The temperature gradient of the solid in several selected nodes

Fig. 11

(a) Transient of current density as a function of time: 3D figure and (b) transient of current density as a function of time: 2D figure

Fig. 12

Transient of current density as a function of nodes

Fig. 13

Current density transients in 20 nodes during cathode inlet airflow decrease when the heat capacity scale was set as 0.001

Fig. 14

(a) Transient of Nernst as a function of time: 3D figure and (b) transient of Nernst as a function of time: 2D figure

Fig. 15

(a) Losses as a function of time: activation loss, (b) losses as a function of time: ohmic loss, (c) losses as a function of time: diffusion loss, and (d) losses as a function of time: normalized value

Fig. 16

Stack power, voltage, and fuel utilization as a function of time

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