0
Research Papers

Accelerated Degradation for Hardware in the Loop Simulation of Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine Hybrid System

[+] Author and Article Information
Maria A. Abreu-Sepulveda

U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory,
3610 Collins Ferry Road,
Morgantown, WV 26507
e-mail: maria.abreu-sepulveda@contr.netl.doe.gov

Nor Farida Harun

Department of Chemical Engineering,
McMaster University,
Hamilton, ON L8S 4L7, Canada
e-mail: adfarimie@yahoo.com

Gregory Hackett

U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory,
3610 Collins Ferry Road,
Morgantown, WV 26507
e-mail: gregory.hackett@netl.doe.gov

Anke Hagen

Department of Energy Conversion,
Technical University of Denmark,
Roskilde 4000, Denmark
e-mail: anke@dtu.dk

David Tucker

U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory,
3610 Collins Ferry Road,
Morgantown, WV 26507
e-mail: david.tucker@netl.doe.gov

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FUEL CELL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received July 14, 2014; final manuscript received September 8, 2014; published online December 17, 2014. Editor: Nigel M. Sammes.

The United States Government retains, and by accepting the article for publication, the publisher acknowledges that the United States Government retains, a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this work, or allow others to do so, for United States government purposes.

J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol 12(2), 021001 (Apr 01, 2015) (7 pages) Paper No: FC-14-1084; doi: 10.1115/1.4028953 History: Received July 14, 2014; Revised September 08, 2014; Online December 17, 2014

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in Morgantown, WV has developed the hybrid performance (HyPer) project in which a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) one-dimensional (1D), real-time operating model is coupled to a gas turbine hardware system by utilizing hardware-in-the-loop simulation. To assess the long-term stability of the SOFC part of the system, electrochemical degradation due to operating conditions such as current density and fuel utilization have been incorporated into the SOFC model and successfully recreated in real time. The mathematical expression for degradation rate was obtained through the analysis of empirical voltage versus time plots for different current densities and fuel utilizations.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Hughes, D., Wepfer, W. J., Davies, K., Haynes, C., and Tucker, D., 2011, “A Real-Time Spatial SOFC Model for Hardware—Based Simulation of Hybrid Systems,” ASME Paper No. FuelCell2011-54591. [CrossRef]
Tucker, D., 2009, “The Role of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells in Advanced Hybrid Power Systems of the Future,” Electrochem. Soc. Interface, 18(3), pp. 25–28.
Haga, K., Adachi, S., Shiratori, Y., Itoh, K., and Sasaki, K., 2008, “Poisoning of SOFC Anodes by Various Fuel Impurities,” Solid State Ionics, 179(27–32), pp. 1427–1431. [CrossRef]
Offer, G. J., and Brandon, N. P., 2009, “The Effect of Current Density and Temperature on the Degradation of Nickel Cermet Electrodes by Carbon Monoxide in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 64(10), pp. 2291–2300. [CrossRef]
Bao, J., Krishnan, G. N., Jayaweera, P., Perez-Mariano, J., and Sanjurjo, A., 2009, “Effect of Various Coal Contaminants on the Performance of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Part I. Accelerated Testing,” J. Power Sources, 193(2), pp. 607–616. [CrossRef]
Park, K., Yu, S., Bae, J., Kim, H., and Ko, Y., 2010, “Fast Performance Degradation of SOFC Caused by Cathode Delamination in Long-Term Testing,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 35(11), pp. 8670–8677. [CrossRef]
Vladikova, D. E., Stoynov, Z. B., Barbucci, A., and Viviani, M., 2008, “Impedance Studies of Cathode/Electrolyte Behaviour in SOFC,” Electrochim. Acta, 53(25), pp. 7491–7499. [CrossRef]
Hagen, A., Barfod, R., and Hendriksen, P. V., 2006, “Degradation of Anode Supported SOFCs as a Function of Temperature and Current Load,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 153(6), pp. A1165–A1171. [CrossRef]
Hagen, A., Liu, Y. L., Barfod, R., and Hendriksen, P. V., 2008, “Assessment of the Cathode Contribution to the Degradation of Anode-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 155(10), pp. B1047–B1052. [CrossRef]
Comminges, C., Fu, Q. X., Zahid, M., Yousfi Steiner, N., and Bucheli, O., 2012, “Monitoring the Degradation of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack During 10,000 h via Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy,” Electrochim. Acta, 59(9), pp. 367–375. [CrossRef]
Komatsu, T., Watanabe, K., Arakawa, M., and Hajime, A., 2009, “A Long-Term Degradation Study of Power Generation Characteristics of Anode-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Using LaNi(Fe)O3 Electrode,” J. Power Sources, 193(2), pp. 585–588. [CrossRef]
Komatsu, T., Yoshida, Y., Watanabe, K., Chiba, R., Taguchi, H., Orui, H., and Arai, H., 2010, “Degradation Behavior of Anode-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Using LNF Cathode as Function of Current Load,” J. Power Sources, 195(17), pp. 5601–5605. [CrossRef]
ThyssenKrupp, “2010Crofer22APU Material Data Sheet No. 4046,” ThyssenKrupp, Werdohl, Germany.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the HyPer facility and (b) simplified fuel cell model

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

(a) Output voltage of planar SOFC at 750 °C for at several current densities and 75–85% Uf. (b) Degradation rate as function of current density at 750 (•), 800 (Δ), and 850 °C (○).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Extrapolated plots for the different operating temperatures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Degradation rate as function of fuel utilization

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

(a) and (b) PID controller for the output power and fuel utilization during standalone operation, (c) PID for the total power of the system during hybrid operation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

SOFC parameters: (a) power output was held constant by increasing the current demand and (b) increase in fuel flow to maintain fuel utilization constant at the predetermined value

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

3D plot for the current density of the SOFC per node over time

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Current density distribution per node at time zero and after 4600 h before failing

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Voltage losses, from top to bottom: activation loss, ohmic loss, and diffusion loss at time zero and before failure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Fuel cell cathode temperature per node over time

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Change in temperature per node at time zero and right before SOFC failure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Total output power of the system was kept constant during the hybrid real time simulation while fuel cell voltage was decreasing due to degradation

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In