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Research Papers

Control Impacts of Cold-Air Bypass on Pressurized Fuel Cell Turbine Hybrids

[+] Author and Article Information
Paolo Pezzini

Thermochemical Power Group (TPG)—DIME,
Universita’ di Genova,
Via Montallegro 1,
Genova 16100, Italy
e-mail: paolo.pezzini@unige.it

Sue Celestin

Department of Chemical Engineering,
Northeastern University,
Boston, MA 02115
e-mail: sscelestin@hotmail.com

David Tucker

National Energy Technology Laboratory,
Department of Energy,
3610 Collins Ferry Road 26505,
Morgantown, WV 26507-0880
e-mail: david.tucker@netl.doe.gov

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FUEL CELL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received August 19, 2014; final manuscript received October 24, 2014; published online December 2, 2014. Editor: Nigel M. Sammes.This material is declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol 12(1), 011006 (Feb 01, 2015) (8 pages) Paper No: FC-14-1102; doi: 10.1115/1.4029083 History: Received August 19, 2014; Revised October 24, 2014; Online December 02, 2014

A pressure drop analysis for a direct-fired fuel cell turbine hybrid power system was evaluated using a hardware-based simulation of an integrated gasifier/fuel cell/turbine hybrid cycle, implemented through the hybrid performance (Hyper) project at the National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy (NETL). The Hyper facility is designed to explore dynamic operation of hybrid systems and quantitatively characterize such transient behavior. It is possible to model, test, and evaluate the effects of different parameters on the design and operation of a gasifier/fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid system and provide means of evaluating risk mitigation strategies. The cold-air bypass in the Hyper facility directs compressor discharge flow to the turbine inlet duct, bypassing the fuel cell, and exhaust gas recuperators in the system. This valve reduces turbine inlet temperature while reducing cathode airflow, but significantly improves compressor surge margin. Regardless of the reduced turbine inlet temperature as the valve opens, a peak in turbine efficiency is observed during characterization of the valve at the middle of the operating range. A detailed experimental analysis shows the unusual behavior during steady state and transient operation, which is considered a key point for future control strategies in terms of turbine efficiency optimization and cathode airflow control.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Flow diagram for the Hyper simulation facility at NETL

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Fig. 2

Comparison between a standard compressor/turbine volume and a hybrid configuration

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Fig. 3

Fuel flow and efficiency evaluation in closed-loop configuration at the steady state

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Fig. 4

Turbine inlet temperature and total system pressure drop evaluation in closed-loop configuration at the steady state

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Fig. 5

Compressor, turbine, and differential pressure ratio in closed-loop configuration at the steady state

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Fig. 6

Turbine speed and efficiency evaluation in open-loop configuration at the steady state

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Fig. 7

Turbine inlet temperature and total system pressure drop evaluation in open-loop configuration at the steady state

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Fig. 8

Compressor, turbine, and differential pressure ratio in open-loop configuration at the steady state

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Fig. 9

Fuel flow and efficiency evaluation in closed-loop configuration during transient

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Fig. 10

Turbine inlet temperature and total system pressure drop evaluation in closed-loop during transient

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Fig. 11

Compressor, turbine, and differential pressure ratio in closed-loop during transient

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Fig. 12

Turbine speed and efficiency evaluation in open-loop configuration during transient

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Fig. 13

Turbine inlet temperature and total system pressure drop evaluation in open-loop during transient

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Fig. 14

Compressor, turbine, and differential pressure ratio in open-loop during transient

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Fig. 15

Fuel flow and efficiency evaluation in closed-loop configuration during transient dynamic effect with orifice plate

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Fig. 16

Turbine inlet temperature and total system pressure drop evaluation in closed-loop configuration during transient dynamic effect with orifice plate

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Fig. 17

Compressor, turbine, and differential pressure ratio in closed-loop configuration during transient dynamic effect with orifice plate

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Fig. 18

Fuel flow and efficiency evaluation in open-loop configuration during transient dynamic effect with orifice plate

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Fig. 19

Turbine inlet temperature and total system pressure drop evaluation in open-loop configuration during transient dynamic effect with orifice plate

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Fig. 20

Compressor, turbine, and differential pressure ratio in open-loop configuration during transient dynamic effect with orifice plate

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Fig. 21

Nonlinearity comparison in open-loop configuration

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