Research Papers

Simulation of an Innovative Startup Phase for SOFC Hybrid Systems Based on Recompression Technology: Emulator Test Rig

[+] Author and Article Information
U. M. Damo

School of Mechanical,
Aerospace and Civil Engineering,
The University of Manchester,
Manchester M13 9PL, UK
e-mails: dk_damo@yahoo.com;

M. L. Ferrari, A. F. Massardo

Thermochemical Power Group,
University of Genoa,
Genoa 16145, Italy

A. Turan

School of Mechanical,
Aerospace and Civil Engineering,
The University of Manchester,
Manchester M13 9PL, UK

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FUEL CELL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received December 30, 2014; final manuscript received July 12, 2015; published online August 4, 2015. Assoc. Editor: Rak-Hyun Song.

J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol 12(4), 041004 (Aug 04, 2015) (6 pages) Paper No: FC-14-1149; doi: 10.1115/1.4031106 History: Received December 30, 2014

This paper presents a novel startup approach for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) hybrid systems (HSs) based on recompression technology. This startup approach shows a novel method of managing a complete plant to obtain better performance, which is always also a difficult task for equipment manufactures. The research activities were carried out using the HS emulator rig located in Savona (Italy) and developed by the Thermochemical Power Group (TPG) of the University of Genoa. The test rig consists of three integrated technologies: a 100 kWe recuperated microturbine modified for external connections, a high temperature modular vessel necessary to emulate the dimensions of an SOFC stack, and, for air recompression, a turbocharger necessary to increase fuel cell pressure (using part of the recuperator outlet flow) as required for efficiency increase and to manage the cathodic recirculation. It was necessary to develop a theoretical model in order to prevent abnormal plant startup conditions as well as motivated by economic considerations. This transient model of the emulator rig was developed using Matlab®-Simulink® environment to study the time-dependent (including the control system aspects) behavior during the entire system (emulator equipped with the turbocharger) startup condition. The results obtained were able to demonstrate that the HS startup phase can be safely managed with better performance developing a new control logic. In detail, the startup phase reported in this paper shows that all important parameters were always inside acceptable operating zones (surge margin kept above 1.1, turbine outlet temperature (TOT), and fuel flow maintained lower than 918.15 K and 7.7 g/s, respectively).

Copyright © 2015 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Cobb, L. , 2007, “The Causes of Global Warming: A Graphical Approach ,” Quaker Econom., 7(158), epub, http://tqe.quaker.org/2007/TQE158-EN-GlobalWarming.html
Thornton, A. , and Monroy, C. R. , 2011, “Distributed Power Generation in the United States,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 15(9), pp. 4809–4817. [CrossRef]
Yan, J. , Chou, S. K. , Desideri, U. , and Xia, X. , 2014, “Innovative and Sustainable Solutions of Clean Energy Technologies and Policies (Part I),” Appl. Energy, 130, pp. 447–449. [CrossRef]
Komatsu, Y. , Brus, G. , Kimijima, S. , and Szmyd, J. S. , 2014, “The Effect of Overpotentials on the Transient Response of the 300 W SOFC Cell Stack Voltage,” Appl. Energy, 115, pp. 352–359. [CrossRef]
Yan, J. , Chou, S. K. , Desideri, U. , Tu, S. T. , and Jin, H. G. , 2013, “Research, Development and Innovations for Sustainable Future Energy Systems,” Appl. Energy, 112, pp. 393–394. [CrossRef]
McLarty, D. , Brouwer, J. , and Samuelsen, S. , 2013, “Hybrid Fuel Cell Gas Turbine System Design and Optimization,” ASME J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol., 10(4), p. 041005. [CrossRef]
Tucker, D. , Vanosdol, J. , Liese, E. , Lawson, L. , Zitney, S. , Gemmen, R. , Ford, J. C. , and Haynes, C. , 2012, “Evaluation of Methods for Thermal Management in a Coal-Based SOFC Turbine Hybrid Through Numerical Simulation,” ASME J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol., 9(4), p. 041004. [CrossRef]
Nishino, T. , and Szmyd, J. S. , 2010, “Numerical Analysis of a Cell-Based Indirect Internal Reforming Tubular SOFC Operating With Biogas,” ASME J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol., 7(5), p. 051004. [CrossRef]
Liso, V. , Olesen, A. C. , Nielsen, M. P. , and Kaer, S. K. , 2011, “Performance Comparison Between Partial Oxidation and Methane Steam Reforming Processes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Micro Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System,” Energy, 36(7), pp. 4216–4226. [CrossRef]
Damo, U. M. , Ferrari, M. L. , Turan, A. , and Massardo, A. F. , 2014, “Test Rig for Hybrid System Emulation: New Real-Time Transient Model Validated in a Wide Operative Range,” Fuel Cells, 15(1), pp. 7–14. [CrossRef]
Damo, U. M. , Ferrari, M. L. , Turan, A. , and Massardo, A. F. , 2014, “ Re-Compression Model for SOFC Hybrid Systems: Start-Up and Shutdown Test for an Emulator Rig,” Fuel Cells, 15(1), pp. 42–48. [CrossRef]
Roberts, R. A. , and Brouwer, J. , 2006, “Dynamic Simulation of a Pressurized 220 kW Solid Oxide Fuel-Cell–Gas-Turbine Hybrid System: Modeled Performance Compared to Measured Results,” ASME J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol., 3(1), pp. 18–25. [CrossRef]
Hirschenhofer, J. H. , Stauffer, D. B. , and Engleman, R. R. , 1994, Fuel Cells—A Handbook (Revision 3), Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Morgantown, WV, Report No. DOE/METC-94/1006.
Lin, P. H. , and Hong, C. W. , 2006, “On the Start-Up Transient Simulation of a Turbo Fuel Cell System,” J. Power Sources, 160(2), pp. 1230–1241. [CrossRef]
Winkler, W. , and Lorenz, H. , 2002, “The Design of Stationary and Mobile Solid Oxide Fuel Cell–Gas Turbine Systems,” J. Power Sources, 105(2), pp. 222–227. [CrossRef]
Hohloch, M. , Axel, W. , Dominik, L. , Tobias, P. , and Manfred, A. , 2008, “Micro Gas Turbine Test Rig for Hybrid Power Plant Application,” ASME Paper No. GT2008-50443.
Ferrari, M. L. , Traverso, A. , Pascenti, M. , and Massardo, A. F. , 2007, “Early Start-Up of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid Systems With Ejector Cathodic Recirculation: Experimental Results and Model Verification,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part A, 221(5), pp. 627–635. [CrossRef]
Ferrari, M. L. , Pascenti, M. , Magistri, L. , and Massardo, A. F. , 2010, “Hybrid System Test Rig: Start-Up and Shutdown Physical Emulation,” ASME J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol., 7(2), p. 021005. [CrossRef]
Damo, U. M. , 2015, “Design and Development of a Micro Gas Turbine Theoretical and Experimental Analysis on the SOFC/mGT Coupling Based on a Hybrid System Emulator Rig,” Ph.D. thesis, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.
Fardadi, M. , McLarty, D. F. , and Jabbari, F. , 2013, “Actuator Limitations in Spatial Temperature Control of SOFC,” ASME J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol., 10(3), p. 031005. [CrossRef]
Mueller, F. , Tarroja, B. , Maclay, J. , Jabbari, F. , Brouwer, J. , and Samuelsen, S. , 2010, “Design, Simulation and Control of a 100 MW-Class Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Hybrid System,” ASME J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol., 7(3), p. 031007. [CrossRef]
Mueller, F. , Jabbari, F. , Brouwer, J. , Roberts, R. , Junker, T. , and Ghezel-Ayagh, H. , 2006, “Control Design for a Bottoming Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Hybrid System,” ASME J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol., 4(3), pp. 221–230. [CrossRef]
Milewski, J. , Miller, A. , and Sałaciński, J. , 2007, “ Off-Design Analysis of SOFC Hybrid System,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 32(6), pp. 687–698. [CrossRef]
Zhang, X. , and Wu, Y.-M. , 2011, “A Control-Oriented Dynamic Model Adapted to Variant Steam-to-Carbon Ratios for an SOFC With Exhaust Fuel Recirculation,” Fuel Cells, 11(2), pp. 200–211. [CrossRef]
Zhou, D. , Mei, J. , Chen, J. , Zhang, H. , and Weng, S. , 2014, “Parametric Analysis on Hybrid System of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Micro Gas Turbine With CO2 Capture,” ASME J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol., 11(5), p. 051001. [CrossRef]
Soares, C. , 2007, Microturbines, Elsevier/Butterworth-Heinemann, Amsterdam.
Ferrari, M. L. , and Massardo, A. F. , 2013, “Cathode–Anode Interaction in SOFC Hybrid Systems,” Appl. Energy, 105, pp. 369–379. [CrossRef]
Ferrari, M. L. , Pascenti, M. , Traverso, A. N. , and Massardo, A. F. , 2012, “Hybrid System Test Rig: Chemical Composition Emulation With Steam Injection,” Appl. Energy, 97, pp. 809–815. [CrossRef]
Caratozzolo, F. , Ferrari, M. L. , Traverso, A. , and Massardo, A. F. , 2013, “Emulator Rig for SOFC Hybrid Systems: Temperature and Power Control With a Real-Time Software,” Fuel Cells, 13(6), pp. 1123–1130. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Plant layout of the HS emulator test rig including recompression device

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

HS emulator test rig

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

HS emulator test rig including recompression device

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Rotational speed behavior over time (calculations against experimental results)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Net electric power

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Fuel mass flow rate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

FO values of valves necessary for recompression system startup phase

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Compressor pressure ratio and turbocharger rotational speed

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Turbocharger compressor outlet mass flow rate

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Surge margin values for both compressors




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In