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Research Papers

# Variation of Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells With the Salt Concentration of the ElectrolyteOPEN ACCESS

[+] Author and Article Information
C. M. Bandarabnayake, G. S. Samarakkody

Department of Electronics,
Wayamba University of Sri Lanka,
Kuliyapitiya 60200, Sri Lanka

K. S. Perera

Department of Electronics,
Wayamba University of Sri Lanka,
Kuliyapitiya 60200, Sri Lanka
e-mail: kumudu31966@gmail.com

K. P. Vidanapathirana

Department of Electronics,
Wayamba University of Sri Lanka,
Kuliyapitiya 60200, Sri Lanka
e-mail: kamalpv41965@gmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received January 28, 2016; final manuscript received June 16, 2016; published online July 6, 2016. Assoc. Editor: San Ping Jiang.

J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor. 13(1), 011007 (Jul 06, 2016) (4 pages) Paper No: JEECS-16-1011; doi: 10.1115/1.4033951 History: Received January 28, 2016; Revised June 16, 2016

## Abstract

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been identified as a viable alternative for conventional solar cells. As liquid electrolyte based DSSCs have several drawbacks, attention has now been diverted toward gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs), which can be placed in between liquid electrolytes and solid electrolytes. In this study, attempts were made to investigate the effect of salt concentration of the GPE on the performance of DSSCs. The GPE used for the study consists of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVdF), ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC), 1-methyl 3-propyl immidazolium iodide (1M3PII), and iodine (I2). Conductivity variation with salt concentration as well as with temperature was first investigated. DSSCs were then fabricated for all the salt concentrations to observe the relationship between salt concentration, conductivity, and performances of DSSCs. The composition 1.6 PVdF/4 EC/4 PC/1.3 1M3PII/0.1308 I2 (weight basis) exhibited the highest conductivity, and it was 3.55 × 10−3 S cm−1 at 28 °C. The sample was an anionic conductor. DSSCs fabricated with the samples having different salt concentrations showed that current density (JSC), fill factor (FF), and efficiency (η) follow the same variation that exists between conductivity and salt concentration. Open circuit voltage (VOC) seemed to be not depending on the conductivity and salt concentration very much.

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## Introduction

After the first report on DSSCs by Gratzel and coworker [1], a tremendous interest aroused considering them as very suitable and economically credible alternative for conventional solar cells. A DSSC comprises of three main components, namely, a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) electrode coated with a layer of porous TiO2 film and sensitized with a dye (photo-electrode), a platinum-coated counter electrode, and an electrolyte containing redox mediator sandwiched in between the electrodes [2]. As the redox mediator, I/I3 redox couple is being used commonly. The photo-electrode absorbs photons from the sunlight, and the dye will be excited by transferring an electron from the highest occupied molecular orbital to the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital. The so-excited dye will inject the electron to the conduction band of TiO2 and it is transported to the counter electrode through the external circuit. At the counter electrode, upon receiving that electron, I3 reduces to I which diffuses to photo-anode to regenerate the oxidized dye to complete the circuit. The facilitation of charge transport process by the I/I3 redox couple between the photo-anode and the counter electrode is very important for a higher efficiency of DSSCs. So, it is highly essential to have an electrolyte with high iodide conductivity for an efficient redox reaction and charge transfer. DSSCs based on liquid electrolytes have achieved efficiencies around 11% [3]. However, they have many drawbacks, such as liquid leakage, flammability, photodecomposition of the dye, and electrode corrosion, which limit the long-term stability as well as the life time. So, efforts are made on developing GPEs in place of liquid electrolytes [4,5]. In GPEs, the electrolytic solution which is formed by dissolving a salt in a mixture of solvent/solvents is trapped in cages of a polymer matrix giving rise to conductivities similar to liquid electrolytes. Different types of polymers, solvents, and salts have been employed for preparation of GPEs. But special attention has been given for selection of salts for DSSCs due to the major role played by the salt to enhance photovoltaic performance that provides a cost value for a DSSC. Iodide salts with bulky cations are widely used in these electrolytes because they are expected to minimize the cation conductivity and enhance iodide ion conductivity. This in turn improves the overall cell performance. Even in a bulky cation-based salt, its concentration should be fine tuned to get an optimum iodide conductivity [6]. Therefore, determining the salt concentration that shows the highest conductivity will be useful to fabricate DSSCs with enhanced photovoltaic performance.

In this study, investigations were initially carried out to trace the salt concentration which corresponds to the maximum conductivity of a GPE consisting of PVdF, EC, PC, and 1M3PII. DSSCs were fabricated for all the salt concentrations to observe the dependence of salt concentration, conductivity, and cell characteristics in terms of open circuit voltage (VOC), short circuit current density (JSC), FF, and efficiency (η).

## Materials and Methods

###### Preparation of the GPEs.

PVdF (Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO), EC (98%, Sigma-Aldrich), PC (99%, Sigma-Aldrich), and 1M3PII (98%, Sigma-Aldrich) were used as-received. Appropriate amounts of PVdF, EC, and PC were stirred magnetically with different amounts of 1M3PII. Weight ratio of EC and PC was kept at 1:1. The resultant mixtures were heated at 100 °C for 20 min. A 10% of I2 (Sigma-Aldrich) was added, and the mixture was pressed in between two well-cleaned glass plates. Before being separated, glass plates with films were left in desiccators overnight. By following this procedure, it was possible to obtain bubble-free thin films.

###### Conductivity Measurements.

A circular shape GPE sample was sandwiched in between two stainless (SS) electrodes in a brass sample holder which is sealed by means of an O ring. Impedance measurements were gathered using a Metrohm 101 frequency response analyzer in the frequency range 37 kHz to 0.01 Hz and in the temperature range 28–55 °C. The conductivity of the GPEs, σ, was calculated using the equation, σ = (1/Rb)(l/A), where Rb is the bulk electrolyte resistance obtained from the complex impedance plot, l is the thickness, and A is the area of the GPE sample. Rb was determined using electrical impedance spectroscopy technique. The thickness and diameter were measured by a micrometer screw gauge. This procedure was repeated for all the salt concentrations.

###### DC Polarization Measurements.

The sample having the highest conductivity was selected for DC polarization test in order to identify the charge carriers responsible for the conductivity. A circular shape pellet was loaded first in between two SS electrodes and then in between two iodide pellets to carry out the DC polarization tests under blocking mode and nonblocking mode, respectively. A DC bias potential of 1 V was applied, and the variations of current across the sample were measured with time.

Ionic transference number, ti, was calculated using the equation, ti = (It − Is)/It, where It is the initial current, and Is is the steady-state current under blocking mode DC polarization test. Similarly, anionic transference number, t, was calculated using the equation, t = Is/It. Here, Is is the steady-state current, and It is the initial current under nonblocking mode DC polarization test.

###### Fabrication and Characterization of DSSCs.

First, FTO glass strips were cleaned well using detergents and distilled water. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) paste was prepared by grinding TiO2 (Degussa P-25) for few minutes. While grinding, few drops of acetic acid and ethanol were mixed with TiO2. The resulting slurry was spread on an active area of 0.25 cm2 on FTO glass strips using doctor blade method. The electrodes were then heated at 450 °C for 45 min. Those nanoporous electrodes were allowed to cool down to room temperature. They were then dipped in ethanolic Ruthenium dye solution for dye absorption for 24 hrs. The GPE was sandwiched in between the TiO2/dye photo-anode and Pt counter electrode. So, the configurations of the DSSCs were in the form, FTO/TiO2/dye/GPE/Pt/FTO. The photocurrent density–voltage (JSCV) characteristics of the cells were measured under 100 mW/cm2 illumination (Table 1).

## Results and Discussion

###### Determination of Optimized GPE Composition.

Figure 1 shows the isothermal graph for the GPEs of five different salt concentrations.

It is very clear that at each salt concentration, conductivity increases with temperature. Conductivity is a parameter which is determined by the charge, concentration, and mobility of charge carriers. Upon increasing temperature, energy of the charge carriers increases and thereby, their mobility increases. So that conductivity increases subsequently. Another important result that can be observed from the graph is that at each temperature, conductivity maximum occurs at the salt concentration of 1.3. When the salt concentration increases, charge carrier concentration increases and conductivity increases [7,8]. Further increase in salt concentration reduces conductivity presumably due to formation of charge aggregates which do not contribute for conductivity [9].

These two situations result in maximum conductivity at one salt concentration. It was found out that the highest room temperature conductivity, 3.55 × 10−3 S cm−1, is obtained with the composition 1.6 PVdF/4 EC/4 PC/1.3 1M3PII/0.1308 I2.

###### Effect of Temperature on the Conductivity of the Optimized GPE.

The log σ variation with inverse temperature for the optimized composition is shown in Fig. 2.

It shows a linear behavior suggesting that the conductivity variation with temperature follows Arrhenius relationship given by σ = σ0 exp(Ea/kBT), where σ0 is the pre-exponential factor, Ea is the activation energy, kB is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the absolute temperature.

###### DC Polarization Measurements With Blocking Electrodes.

Figure 3 shows the results of the DC polarization test done with SS (blocking) electrodes.

The value of ionic transference number, ti, is ∼0.90. This value suggests that the total conductivity is predominantly ionic [10,11]. With GPEs, a greater contribution from electrons is not expected as the conductivity is dominated by a liquid phase where a liquid like charge transport takes place.

###### DC Polarization Measurements With Nonblocking Electrodes.

Current variation with time across the GPE loaded in between two iodide pellets (nonblocking) is shown in Fig. 4. The calculated anionic transference number, t, is 0.65. This hints that there is a substantial contribution from iodide ions in the salt for conductivity than the bulky cation in the salt. It has to accept that both iodide as well as tri-iodide ions migrate by diffusion under the DC potential and gradually polarize the electrolyte resulting in the drop in current.

Higher I/I3 contribution confirms the suitability of the GPE to be used for DSSCs as it essentially determines the short circuit current density via regeneration of the dye.

Summarizing the results of DC polarization tests done under blocking and nonblocking electrodes, it is possible to arrive at the conclusion that iodide/tri-iodide ions are more mobile, and they play a dominant role on the higher conductivity.

###### Photovoltaic Performance of DSSCs.

VOC and JSC values were obtained from the current density–voltage (J–V) characteristic graphs. FF and efficiency (η) were calculated using the equations given below [2]

$FF=Pmax/JSC×VOC$

where the maximum power, Pmax = Jopt × Vopt. Here, Jopt and Vopt are the current density and voltage at maximum power point

$η%=(JSC×VOC×FF/Pin)100%$

where Pin is the power of incident light.

VOC depends on the difference between the Fermi level of TiO2 and redox potential of the electrolyte. If the iodide transference number is high, this difference is large resulting in high VOC [12]. In GPEs having iodide salts of bulky cations, iodide transference number is considerably high as seen with the obtained results for DC polarization test with nonblocking electrodes. This may be the reason for observing somewhat higher VOC values from the fabricated DSSCs.

Anyway, the values are more or less close to each other even though the maximum VOC appears with the GPE having the highest conductivity. One possible reason may be the less dependence of VOC on the concentration and conductivity [4]. Also, VOC is controlled by the amount of cations adsorbed by the TiO2 surface. This is related to small cations only. Hence, a large variation of VOC cannot be expected with bulky cations.

It is seen that at the salt concentration of 1.3 which gives the highest conductivity, the maximum photovoltaic parameters have been observed. The corresponding J–V characteristic curve is given Fig. 5. Lower photovoltaic properties of GPEs having lower conductivities have been reported by Su'ait et al. [13]. The high conductivity is assumed to lead I3 ions being reduced faster to I at the counter electrode/electrolyte interface and then I to oxidize quickly to I3 at the interface of TiO2/electrolyte. This results in higher JSC [14].

FF is attributed to charge transfer kinetic performance in counter electrode and electrolyte interface [15]. Since the DSSC fabricated with the highest conductive sample exhibits the highest FF, it can be assumed that better kinetics is available with the cell. And also, it hints that during operation, less electrical and electrochemical losses have taken place in the cell [16]. Maximum efficiency of 3.31 could be obtained from the cell with the sample having the highest conductivity. This is a very satisfactory value compared to some reported values [17,18]. For this value, the resulted high values of VOC, JSC, and FF may also have contributed.

## Conclusion

GPEs were prepared for five different salt concentrations, and their conductivity variation with temperature was investigated. The highest conductive sample has the composition 1.6 PVdF/4 EC/4 PC/1.3 1M3PII/0.1308 I2. Its room temperature conductivity was 3.55 × 10−3 S cm−1. The sample was predominantly an ionic conductor having more contribution from anions (iodide ions in this system). DSSCs were fabricated using all the GPEs, and their J–V characteristics were obtained. Except VOC, the parameters JSC, FF, and η follow the conductivity variation. VOC values were more or less identical in each cell. As conductivity is mainly controlled by the salt concentration, these results confirm that JSC, FF, and η depend on the salt concentration while VOC is having a less dependency.

## Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance provided by the National Research Council (NRC 12-109), Wayamba University of Sri Lanka (SRHDC/RP/04/13/01), University Grants Commission of Sri Lanka (UGC/VC/DRIC/IRG-2014/WUSL), and National Science Foundation (RG/2014/BS/01).

## References

Regan, B. O. , and Gratzel, M. , 1991, “ A Low Cost High Efficiency Solar Cell Based on Dye Sensitized Colloidal TiO2 Films,” Nature, 353(6346), pp. 737–740.
Arof, A. K. , Aziz, M. F. , Noor, M. M. , Careem, M. A. , Bandara, L. R. A. K. , Thotawatthage, C. A. , Rupasinghe, W. N. S. , and Dissanayake, M. A. K. L. , 2014, “ Efficiency Enhancement by Mixed Cation Effect in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells With a PVdF Based Gel Polymer Electrolyte,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 39(6), pp. 2929–2935.
Gratzel, M. , 2005, “ Solar Energy Conversion by Dye-Sensitized Photovoltaic Cells,” Inorg. Chem., 44(20), pp. 6841–6851. [PubMed]
Yang, H. , Huang, M. , Wu, J. , Lan, Z. , Hao, S. , and Lin, J. , 2008, “ The Polymer Gel Electrolyte Based on Poly(Methylmethacrylate) and Its Application in Quasi-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Mater. Chem. Phys., 110(1), pp. 38–42.
Bandara, T. M. W. J. , Dissanayake, M. A. K. L. , Albinsson, I. , and Mellander, B.-E. , 2010, “ Dye Sensitized, Nano Porous TiO2 Solar Cell With Polyacrylonitrile: MgI2 Plasticized Electrolyte,” J. Power Sources, 195(11), pp. 3730–3734.
Bandara, T. M. W. J. , Svenson, T. , Dissanayake, M. A. K. L. , Furlani, M. , Jayasundara, W. J. M. J. S. R. , and Mellander, B.-E. , 2012, “ Tetrahexyl Ammonium Iodide Containing Solid and Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells,” Energy Procedia, 14, pp. 1607–1612.
Abidin, S. Z. Z. , Ali, A. M. M. , Hassan, O. H. , and Yahya, M. Z. A. , 2013, “ Electrochemical Studies on Cellulose Acetate—LiBOB Polymer Electrolytes,” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 8(5), pp. 7320–7326.
Jayathilake, M. C. D. , Perera, K. S. , and Vidanapathirana, K. P. , 2015, “ Preparation and Characterization of a Polyacrylonitrile-Based Gel Polymer Electrolyte Complexed With 1-Methyl-3-Propyl Immidazolium Iodide,” J. Solid State Electrochem., 19(8), pp. 2199–2203.
Amarasinghe, K. V. L. , Senevirathne, V. A. , Bandara, L. R. A. K. , and Dissanayake, M. A. K. L. , 2014, “ Electrical and FT-IR of Fumed Silica Based Gel Electrolytes: (Tetraglyme)n KI and (Ethylene Glycol)nKI,” 14th Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics, Singapore, June 24–27, pp. 528–537.
Pandey, K. , Dwivedi, M. M. , Asthana, N. , Singh, M. , and Agrawal, S. L. , 2011, “ Structural and Ion Transport Studies in (100-x) PVdF + xNH4SCN Gel Electrolyte,” Mater. Sci. Appl., 2(7), pp. 721–728.
Jayathilake, Y. M. C. D. , Perera, K. S. , Vidanapathirana, K. P. , and Bandara, L. R. A. K. , 2014, “ A Novel Gel Polymer Electrolyte Based on Polymethylmethacrylaate and Copper Trifluoromethanesulfonate,” J. Electroanal. Chem., 724, pp. 125–129.
Jawad, M. K. , Al-Ajaj, E. A. , Suhali, M. H. , and Majid, S. R. , 2014, “ Efficiency Enhancement of Photovoltaic Performance of Quasi Solid State Dye Sensitized Solar Cell With TPAI and KI Binary Iodide Salt Mixture,” Adv. Phys. Theories Appl., 34, pp. 51–59.
Su'ait, M. S. , Ahmad, S. , Badri, K. H. , Mohamed, N. S. , Rahman, M. Y. A. , Azanza Rixardo, C. L. , and Scardi, P. , 2014, “ The Potential of Polyurethane Bio-Based Solid Polymer Electrolyte for Photoelectrochemical Cell Application,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 39(6), pp. 3005–3017.
Rahman, M. Y. A. , Ahmad, A. , Umar, A. A. , Taslim, R. , Su'ait, M. S. , and Salleh, M. M. , 2014, “ Polymer Electrolyte for Photoelectrochemical Cell and Dye Sensitized Solar Cell: A Brief Review,” Ionics, 20(9), pp. 1201–1205.
Kalaignan, G. P. , Kang, M. S. , and Kang, Y. S. , 2006, “ Effects of Compositions on Properties of PEO-KI-I2 Salts Polymer Electrolytes for DSSC,” Solid State Ionics, 177(11–12), pp. 1091–1097.
Nazeeruddin, Md. K. , Baranoff, E. , and Gratzel, M. , 2011, “ Dye Sensitized Solar Cells—A Brief Overview,” Sol. Energy, 85(6), pp. 1172–1178.
Careem, M. A. , Buraidah, M. H. , Aziz, M. F. , Hassan, H. C. , and Arof, A. K. , 2014, “ Polyvinyl Alcohol Gel Polymer Electrolyte Based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells,” 14th Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics, pp. 177–186.
Wang, F. M. , Chu, C. H. , Lee, C. H. , Wu, J. Y. , Lee, K. M. , Tung, Y. L. , Liou, C. H. , Wang, Y. Y. , and Wan, C. C. , 2011, “ An Ionic Transfer Investigation of Tri-Iodine of Solvent-Free Oligomeric Electrolytes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells,” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 6(4), pp. 1100–1115.
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## References

Regan, B. O. , and Gratzel, M. , 1991, “ A Low Cost High Efficiency Solar Cell Based on Dye Sensitized Colloidal TiO2 Films,” Nature, 353(6346), pp. 737–740.
Arof, A. K. , Aziz, M. F. , Noor, M. M. , Careem, M. A. , Bandara, L. R. A. K. , Thotawatthage, C. A. , Rupasinghe, W. N. S. , and Dissanayake, M. A. K. L. , 2014, “ Efficiency Enhancement by Mixed Cation Effect in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells With a PVdF Based Gel Polymer Electrolyte,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 39(6), pp. 2929–2935.
Gratzel, M. , 2005, “ Solar Energy Conversion by Dye-Sensitized Photovoltaic Cells,” Inorg. Chem., 44(20), pp. 6841–6851. [PubMed]
Yang, H. , Huang, M. , Wu, J. , Lan, Z. , Hao, S. , and Lin, J. , 2008, “ The Polymer Gel Electrolyte Based on Poly(Methylmethacrylate) and Its Application in Quasi-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Mater. Chem. Phys., 110(1), pp. 38–42.
Bandara, T. M. W. J. , Dissanayake, M. A. K. L. , Albinsson, I. , and Mellander, B.-E. , 2010, “ Dye Sensitized, Nano Porous TiO2 Solar Cell With Polyacrylonitrile: MgI2 Plasticized Electrolyte,” J. Power Sources, 195(11), pp. 3730–3734.
Bandara, T. M. W. J. , Svenson, T. , Dissanayake, M. A. K. L. , Furlani, M. , Jayasundara, W. J. M. J. S. R. , and Mellander, B.-E. , 2012, “ Tetrahexyl Ammonium Iodide Containing Solid and Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells,” Energy Procedia, 14, pp. 1607–1612.
Abidin, S. Z. Z. , Ali, A. M. M. , Hassan, O. H. , and Yahya, M. Z. A. , 2013, “ Electrochemical Studies on Cellulose Acetate—LiBOB Polymer Electrolytes,” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 8(5), pp. 7320–7326.
Jayathilake, M. C. D. , Perera, K. S. , and Vidanapathirana, K. P. , 2015, “ Preparation and Characterization of a Polyacrylonitrile-Based Gel Polymer Electrolyte Complexed With 1-Methyl-3-Propyl Immidazolium Iodide,” J. Solid State Electrochem., 19(8), pp. 2199–2203.
Amarasinghe, K. V. L. , Senevirathne, V. A. , Bandara, L. R. A. K. , and Dissanayake, M. A. K. L. , 2014, “ Electrical and FT-IR of Fumed Silica Based Gel Electrolytes: (Tetraglyme)n KI and (Ethylene Glycol)nKI,” 14th Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics, Singapore, June 24–27, pp. 528–537.
Pandey, K. , Dwivedi, M. M. , Asthana, N. , Singh, M. , and Agrawal, S. L. , 2011, “ Structural and Ion Transport Studies in (100-x) PVdF + xNH4SCN Gel Electrolyte,” Mater. Sci. Appl., 2(7), pp. 721–728.
Jayathilake, Y. M. C. D. , Perera, K. S. , Vidanapathirana, K. P. , and Bandara, L. R. A. K. , 2014, “ A Novel Gel Polymer Electrolyte Based on Polymethylmethacrylaate and Copper Trifluoromethanesulfonate,” J. Electroanal. Chem., 724, pp. 125–129.
Jawad, M. K. , Al-Ajaj, E. A. , Suhali, M. H. , and Majid, S. R. , 2014, “ Efficiency Enhancement of Photovoltaic Performance of Quasi Solid State Dye Sensitized Solar Cell With TPAI and KI Binary Iodide Salt Mixture,” Adv. Phys. Theories Appl., 34, pp. 51–59.
Su'ait, M. S. , Ahmad, S. , Badri, K. H. , Mohamed, N. S. , Rahman, M. Y. A. , Azanza Rixardo, C. L. , and Scardi, P. , 2014, “ The Potential of Polyurethane Bio-Based Solid Polymer Electrolyte for Photoelectrochemical Cell Application,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 39(6), pp. 3005–3017.
Rahman, M. Y. A. , Ahmad, A. , Umar, A. A. , Taslim, R. , Su'ait, M. S. , and Salleh, M. M. , 2014, “ Polymer Electrolyte for Photoelectrochemical Cell and Dye Sensitized Solar Cell: A Brief Review,” Ionics, 20(9), pp. 1201–1205.
Kalaignan, G. P. , Kang, M. S. , and Kang, Y. S. , 2006, “ Effects of Compositions on Properties of PEO-KI-I2 Salts Polymer Electrolytes for DSSC,” Solid State Ionics, 177(11–12), pp. 1091–1097.
Nazeeruddin, Md. K. , Baranoff, E. , and Gratzel, M. , 2011, “ Dye Sensitized Solar Cells—A Brief Overview,” Sol. Energy, 85(6), pp. 1172–1178.
Careem, M. A. , Buraidah, M. H. , Aziz, M. F. , Hassan, H. C. , and Arof, A. K. , 2014, “ Polyvinyl Alcohol Gel Polymer Electrolyte Based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells,” 14th Asian Conference on Solid State Ionics, pp. 177–186.
Wang, F. M. , Chu, C. H. , Lee, C. H. , Wu, J. Y. , Lee, K. M. , Tung, Y. L. , Liou, C. H. , Wang, Y. Y. , and Wan, C. C. , 2011, “ An Ionic Transfer Investigation of Tri-Iodine of Solvent-Free Oligomeric Electrolytes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells,” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci., 6(4), pp. 1100–1115.

## Figures

Fig. 4

DC polarization curve taken for the GPE, 1.6 PVdF/4 EC/4 PC/1.3 1M3PII/0.1308 I2 at room temperature with I2 (nonblocking) electrodes

Fig. 3

DC polarization curve taken for the GPE, 1.6 PVdF/4 EC/4 PC/1.3 1M3PII/0.1308 I2 at room temperature with SS (blocking) electrodes

Fig. 2

Temperature dependence of the ionic conductivity of the GPE having the composition 1.6 PVdF/4 EC/4 PC/1.3 1M3PII/0.1308 I2

Fig. 1

Isothermal graph for the GPEs of five different salt concentrations for five different temperatures

Fig. 5

J–V curve of DSSC with the GPE, 1.6 PVdF/4 EC/4 PC/1.3 1M3PII/0.1308 I2

## Tables

Table 1 Photovoltaic performance of the DSSCs fabricated using different salt concentrations of the GPE consisting of PVdF, EC, PC, 1M3PII, and I2
Bold corresponds to the salt concentration with the optimum performance.

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