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Research Papers

Enhancing the Cycling Stability of Tin Sulfide Anodes for Lithium Ion Battery by Titanium Oxide Atomic Layer Deposition

[+] Author and Article Information
Dongsheng Guan

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wisconsin Milwaukee,
Milwaukee, WI 53211
e-mail: guand@uwm.edu

Chris Yuan

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
University of Wisconsin Milwaukee,
Milwaukee, WI 53211
e-mail: cyuan@uwm.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 22, 2016; final manuscript received September 20, 2016; published online October 11, 2016. Assoc. Editor: Kevin Huang.

J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor. 13(2), 021004 (Oct 11, 2016) (5 pages) Paper No: JEECS-16-1086; doi: 10.1115/1.4034809 History: Received June 22, 2016; Revised September 20, 2016

The poor cyclability problem of SnS2 anodes in Li-ion batteries (LIB) is tackled for the first time by surface coatings with TiO2 via atomic layer deposition (ALD). ALD is capable to achieve uniform, conformal nanoscale coatings onto entire SnS2 electrodes, and enhance their cycling stability and rate performance. From our study, we found that the bare electrode delivers capacities eventually down to 219.2 mA h g−1 over 50 cycles, while the ALD TiO2-coated gains a final capacity of 323.7 mA h g−1 (47.7% higher). Electrochemical impedance analyses reveal that the improvement is ascribed to the smaller charge transfer resistance and formation of thinner solid–electrolyte interfaces (SEI) in the coated electrode, thanks to its better structural integrity and less electrolyte decomposition in the presence of protective coatings.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the first TiO2 ALD layer formed on the SnS2 electrode and more ALD cycles to achieve the growth of TiO2 ALD coating with a targeted thickness

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Fig. 2

SEM images of SnS2 nanoparticles and their flake-like aggregates. The inset image shows the flake feature with a scale bar of 100 nm.

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Fig. 3

Characterization of SnS2 powder: (a) EDS spectrum and (b) XRD pattern

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Fig. 4

(a) SEM image and elemental mapping images of a SnS2 aggregate coated with TiO2 via 120 ALD cycles: (b) Sn, (c) Ti, (d) O, and (e) TEM image of such a coated SnS2 aggregate

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Fig. 5

Elemental analysis of SS-120TiO electrode: (a) SEM image showing the region for EDS analysis, (b) EDS spectrum and (c, d) elemental mapping images of Ti and O; (e, f) Ti 2p and O 1s XPS peaks, and (g) full XPS spectrum

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Fig. 6

(a) Cross-sectional SEM image of SS-120TiO electrode with numbers denoting regions where elements were quantified by EDS, and (b) weight ratios of Ti/Sn as a function of the depth profile (regions 1–5)

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Fig. 7

Specific capacities of (a) bare and TiO2-coated SnS2 anodes measured at 100 mA g−1 and (b) at 100–1000 mA g−1, (c, d) charge–discharge profiles in various cycles at 100 mA g−1 of the bare and SS-80TiO electrodes, their (e) cyclic voltammetry and (f) impedance profiles after 30 (hollow symbols) and 50 (solid symbols) battery cycles

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Fig. 8

EDS elemental spectra of SS-80TiO electrode after 50 battery cycles

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