where the area-specific resistance of the stack, ASR_{stack}, is the product of the stack resistance (*r*_{stack}) and the membrane area (*A*), *d* is the intermembrane distance, and *κ* is the solution conductivity. Here, ASR of the CEM and AEMs is fixed based on experimentally verified values, 3 Ω cm^{2}, *d* is 150 *μ*m, and HC and LC solutions' conductivities are 52.79 mS/cm and 0.132 mS/cm at the start of the controlled mixing process [21]. The reaction-based resistance is neglected in this work, making the IEMs the dominant resistance. However, in reality it is known that as the number of membrane pairs decreases, the electrodes limit system performance.