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Review Article

A Comprehensive Study on Rechargeable Energy Storage Technologies

[+] Author and Article Information
Rahul Gopalakrishnan

Mobility, Logistics and Automotive
Technology Research Centre (MOBI),
Department of Electrical Engineering and
Energy Technology (ETEC),
Vrije Universiteit Brussels,
Pleinlaan 2,
Brussels 1050, Belgium
e-mail: rgopalak@vub.ac.be

Shovon Goutam

Mobility, Logistics and Automotive
Technology Research Centre (MOBI),
Department of Electrical Engineering and
Energy Technology (ETEC),
Vrije Universiteit Brussels,
Pleinlaan 2,
Brussels 1050, Belgium
e-mail: Shovon.Goutam@vub.ac.be

Luis Miguel Oliveira

Mobility, Logistics and Automotive
Technology Research Centre (MOBI),
Department of Electrical Engineering and
Energy Technology (ETEC),
Vrije Universiteit Brussels,
Pleinlaan 2,
Brussels 1050, Belgium
e-mail: luis.miguel.oliveira@vub.ac.be

Jean-Marc Timmermans

Mobility, Logistics and Automotive
Technology Research Centre (MOBI),
Department of Electrical Engineering and
Energy Technology (ETEC),
Vrije Universiteit Brussels,
Pleinlaan 2,
Brussels 1050, Belgium
e-mail: jptimmer@vub.ac.be

Noshin Omar

Mobility, Logistics and Automotive
Technology Research Centre (MOBI),
Department of Electrical Engineering and
Energy Technology (ETEC),
Vrije Universiteit Brussels,
Pleinlaan 2,
Brussels 1050, Belgium
e-mail: noshomar@vub.ac.be

Maarten Messagie

Mobility, Logistics and Automotive
Technology Research Centre (MOBI),
Department of Electrical Engineering and
Energy Technology (ETEC),
Vrije Universiteit Brussels,
Pleinlaan 2,
Brussels 1050, Belgium
e-mail: mmessagi@vub.ac.be

Peter Van den Bossche

Mobility, Logistics and Automotive
Technology Research Centre (MOBI),
Department of Electrical Engineering and
Energy Technology (ETEC),
Vrije Universiteit Brussels,
Pleinlaan 2,
Brussels 1050, Belgium
e-mail: Peter.Van.Den.Bossche@vub.ac.be

Joeri van Mierlo

Mobility, Logistics and Automotive
Technology Research Centre (MOBI),
Department of Electrical Engineering and
Energy Technology (ETEC),
Vrije Universiteit Brussels,
Pleinlaan 2,
Brussels 1050, Belgium
e-mail: jvmierlo@vub.ac.be

Manuscript received September 7, 2016; final manuscript received January 31, 2017; published online April 11, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Partha Mukherjee.

J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor. 13(4), 040801 (Apr 11, 2017) (25 pages) Paper No: JEECS-16-1121; doi: 10.1115/1.4036000 History: Received September 07, 2016; Revised January 31, 2017

This paper provides an extended overview of the existing electrode materials and electrolytes for energy storage systems that can be used in environmentally friendly hybrid and electric vehicles from the literature based on lithium-ion and nonlithium technologies. The performed analysis illustrates the current and future evolution in the field of electrode materials development (2015–2040). The investigated characteristics are specific energy, specific power, cycle life, and safety. Furthermore, the proposed study describes the cost and life cycle assessment of the proposed technologies and the availability of these materials.

Copyright © 2016 by ASME
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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the charge/discharge process in a lithium-ion battery. (Reproduced with permission from Xu et al. [18]. Copyright 2014 by Royal Society of Chemistry.)

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Fig. 2

Electrode model representing packing of active material, binder, and conductive particles [19]

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Fig. 3

Discharge profile of graphite versus Li+/Li

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Fig. 4

Lithium titanate crystal [29]

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Fig. 5

Theoretical capacity of different elements that can be used as anode material in Li-ion batteries. (Reproduced with permission from Larcher et al. [47]. Copyright 2007 by Royal Society of Chemistry.)

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Fig. 6

Si-Nanowires grown directly on the current collector. (Reproduced with permission from Chan et al. [59]. Copyright 2008 by Nature Publishing Group.)

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Fig. 7

Schematic of SEI formation on silicon surfaces. (a) a solid silicon nanowire and (b) silicon nanotube without a mechanical constraining layer (c) designing a mechanical constraining layer on the hollow silicon nanotubes. (Reproduced with permission from Wu et al. [61]. Copyright 2012 by Nature Publishing Group.)

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Fig. 8

Schematic representation of the materials design: (a) a conventional slurry coated SiNP electrode, (b) a novel Si void electrode, and (c) a magnified schematic of an individual Si void C particles. (Reprinted with permission from Liu et al. [62]. Copyright 2012 by American Chemical Society.)

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Fig. 9

Structure of LiNiMnCoO2 electrode [86]

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Fig. 10

Material triangle for LiNiMnCoO2 electrode material [87]

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Fig. 11

Measurement of the open circuit potential of NMC111 versus Li+/Li [88]

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Fig. 12

Measurement of the open circuit potential of NMC442 versus Li+/Li [VUB-MOBI]

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Fig. 13

Structure of spinel LiMn2O4 electrode [91]

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Fig. 14

Olivine structure [86]

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Fig. 15

Capacity as a function of operating temperature and storage time [99]

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Fig. 16

Li2FeSiO4 structure. (Reprinted with permission from Eames et al. [111]. Copyright 2012 by American Chemical Society.)

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Fig. 17

Comparison of cycle life between four types of commercial cells at 25 °C [VUB-MOBI]

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Fig. 18

Electric conductivity of various lithium salts [117]

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Fig. 19

(a) Schematic of a typical Li-S cell. (b) Typical discharge–charge voltage curve of a Li-S cell. (Reprinted with permission from Manthiram et al. [130]. Copyright 2014 by American Chemical Society.)

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Fig. 20

Open circuit voltage test for Lithium Sulfur coin cell versus Li+/Li [VUB-MOBI]

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Fig. 21

Ragone plot of different battery technology, focusing on solid-state batteries [155]

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Fig. 22

Conductivity of different solid-state electrolytes [156]

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Fig. 23

Limiting energy density of various rechargeable energy systems [157]

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Fig. 24

Configuration and working principle of an aprotic Li-air battery system [173]

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Fig. 25

Hybrid Li-air battery, cell design, and discharge. (Reproduced with permission from Akhtar and Akhtar [172]. Copyright 2015 by Wiley.)

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Fig. 26

Schematic of working principle of Zn-Air Battery (Reproduced with permission from Li and Dai [185]. Copyright 2014 by Royal Society of Chemistry.)

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Fig. 27

Schematic of vanadium redox flow battery [194]

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Fig. 28

Hybrid capacitor principle [195]

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Fig. 29

Ragone plot of hybrid capacitors [195]

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Fig. 30

Global EV forecast [212]

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Fig. 31

Needed lithium production for PHEVs and BEVs [IEA]

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Fig. 32

Lithium resources and reserves in tons [214]

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Fig. 33

Climate change impacts/kWh

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Fig. 34

Human toxicity impacts/kWh

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Fig. 35

Economic relevance of materials versus supply risk

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Fig. 36

Evolution of the battery cost [219]

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Fig. 37

Battery pack cost prediction based on production >10,000 battery packs per year [220]

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Fig. 38

Battery cost at cell/pack level for BEVs and HEVs [220]

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Fig. 39

Battery cost and energy density target [211]

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Fig. 40

Proposed direction for the evolution of different battery technologies

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Fig. 41

Battery value chain players [221]

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