Research Papers

Design Space Assessment of Hydrogen Storage Onboard Medium and Heavy Duty Fuel Cell Electric Trucks

[+] Author and Article Information
John J. Gangloff, Jr., Geoffrey Morrison

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education,
U.S. Department of Energy,
Fuel Cell Technologies Office,
Washington, DC 20585

James Kast

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education,
U.S. Department of Energy,
Fuel Cell Technologies Office,
Washington, DC 20585
e-mail: James.Kast@ee.doe.gov

Jason Marcinkoski

U.S. Department of Energy,
Fuel Cell Technologies Office,
Washington, DC 20585

1Corresponding author.

2Present address: Cadmus Group, Inc., Bethesda, MD 20814.

3Includes class 3–8 vehicles.

4The 2011 national criteria pollutant emissions inventory demonstrates that 36% of NOx, 17% of PM-10, and 13% of PM-2.5 emissions in the U.S. originate from on and off-road heavy duty mobile sources.

5Battery electric vehicles and fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) are considered “zero emission vehicles” because they have zero-emissions at the tailpipe, but may have emissions upstream in the production of electricity or hydrogen.

Manuscript received July 20, 2016; final manuscript received April 11, 2017; published online May 9, 2017. Assoc. Editor: George Nelson.The United States Government retains, and by accepting the article for publication, the publisher acknowledges that the United States Government retains, a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this work, or allow others to do so, for United States government purposes.

J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor. 14(2), 021004 (May 09, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: JEECS-16-1096; doi: 10.1115/1.4036508 History: Received July 20, 2016; Revised April 11, 2017

Hydrogen fuel cells are an important part of a portfolio of strategies for reducing petroleum use and emissions from medium and heavy duty (MD and HD) vehicles; however, their deployment is very limited compared to other powertrains. This paper addresses gaseous hydrogen storage tank design and location on representative MD and HD vehicles. Storage design is based on vehicle size and occupation. The available storage space on representative vehicles is assessed and is used to estimate the weight and capacity of composite material-based compressed gaseous storage at 350 and 700 bar. Results demonstrate the technical feasibility of using hydrogen storage for fuel cell electric trucks (FCETs) across a wide range of the MD and HD vehicle market. This analysis is part of a longer-term project to understand which market segments provide the maximum economic impact and greenhouse gas reduction opportunities for FCETs.

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Fig. 1

Picture of a composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV) manufacturing process via filament winding (credit: Quantum Technologies, 2012)

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Fig. 2

Compressed gas storage onboard trucks and buses, shown in various potential locations

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Fig. 3

Onboard truck hydrogen storage modeling flow chart

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Fig. 4

A capsule geometry consisting of a cylinder with hemispherical ends. The capsule geometry is typically used for composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPV).

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Fig. 5

An array of N = 4 number of compressed gas tank capsule volumes confined within a rectangular packaging volume (i.e., dotted line) that is representative of the available space onboard a fuel cell electric truck to package the tanks

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Fig. 6

A schematic of the stress distribution in the compressed gas tank under internal pressure loading

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Fig. 7

A schematic showing the idealized circular cross section of the COPV with radii dimensions shown

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Fig. 8

Real H2 gas density at T = 313 K as a function of H2 pressure. Real gas data from NIST [17].

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Fig. 9

Truck dimensional guidelines for sizing hydrogen storage tanks

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Fig. 10

Mass of stored hydrogen in example tank dimensions. Shapes indicate tank diameter (in).

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Fig. 11

Effect of storage volume (L) on gravimetric weight capacity (%)

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Fig. 12

Effect of length to diameter ratio (L/D) on gravimetric weight capacity (%)

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Fig. 13

Comparison of empty storage tank mass for 350 and 700 bar

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Fig. 14

Comparison of hydrogen storage capacity for 350 and 700 bar

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Fig. 15

Ratio of empty storage tank mass between 700 and 350 bar at the same gas volumes




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