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Research Papers

Iodine-Doped Graphene for Enhanced Electrocatalytic Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Applications

[+] Author and Article Information
Adriana Marinoiu

National Center for Hydrogen
and Fuel Cell, Rm Valcea,
National RD Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic
Technologies-ICSI Rm. Valcea,
4 Uzinei Street Rm Valcea,
Rm Valcea 240050, Romania
e-mail: adriana.marinoiu@icsi.ro

Mircea Raceanu

National Center for Hydrogen
and Fuel Cell, Rm Valcea,
National RD Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic
Technologies-ICSI Rm. Valcea,
4 Uzinei Street Rm Valcea,
Rm Valcea 240050, Romania;
National Center for Hydrogen
and Fuel Cell, Rm Valcea,
University Politehnica of Bucharest,
313 Splaiul Independentei,
Bucharest 060042, Romania
e-mail: mircea.raceanu@icsi.ro

Elena Carcadea

National Center for Hydrogen
and Fuel Cell, Rm Valcea,
National RD Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic
Technologies-ICSI Rm. Valcea,
4 Uzinei Street Rm Valcea,
Rm Valcea 240050, Romania
e-mail: elena.carcadea@icsi.ro

Mihai Varlam

National Center for Hydrogen
and Fuel Cell, Rm Valcea,
National RD Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic
Technologies-ICSI Rm. Valcea,
4 Uzinei Street Rm Valcea,
Rm Valcea 240050, Romania
e-mail: mihai.varlam@icsi.ro

Dan Balan

Center for Surface Science and Nanotechnology,
Politehnica University of Bucharest,
Bucharest 060042, Romania
e-mail: dan.balan101@gmail.com

Daniela Ion-Ebrasu

National Center for Hydrogen
and Fuel Cell, Rm Valcea,
National RD Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic
Technologies-ICSI Rm. Valcea,
4 Uzinei Street Rm Valcea,
Rm Valcea 240050, Romania
e-mail: Daniela.ebrasu@icsi.ro

Ioan Stefanescu

National Center for Hydrogen
and Fuel Cell, Rm Valcea,
National RD Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic
Technologies-ICSI Rm. Valcea,
4 Uzinei Street Rm Valcea,
Rm Valcea 240050, Romania
e-mail: Ioan.stefanescu@icsi.ro

M. Enachescu

Center for Surface Science and
Nano Technology,
Politehnica University of Bucharest,
Bucharest 060042, Romania
e-mail: marius.enachescu@cssnt-upb.ro

Manuscript received October 30, 2016; final manuscript received April 5, 2017; published online June 1, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Dirk Henkensmeier.

J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor. 14(3), 031001 (Jun 01, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: JEECS-16-1148; doi: 10.1115/1.4036684 History: Received October 30, 2016; Revised April 05, 2017

We prepared iodine-doped graphenes by several techniques (electrophilic substitution and nucleophilic substitution methods) in order to incorporate iodine atoms onto the graphene base materials. The physical characterization of prepared samples was performed by using an array of different techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical methods. A series of cathodes using I-doped graphene were prepared and evaluated. Electrochemical performances of the cathodes with and without I-doped graphene indicated an effective improvement, resulting in a better mass transport in the catalyst layer.

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References

Figures

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Fig. 1

Scheme for preparation of iodinated graphene by nucleophilic substitution

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Fig. 2

Scheme for preparation of iodinated graphene by electrophilic substitution

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Fig. 3

SEM analysis of the pristine graphene (images from top line) and TEM analysis of the pristine graphene (images from bottom line)

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Fig. 4

SEM and TEM analysis for Gri1: images obtained by scanning electrons (top line) and images obtained by transmission electrons (bottom)

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Fig. 5

SEM and TEM analysis for Gri2: images obtained by scanning electrons (top line) and images obtained by transmission electrons (bottom)

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Fig. 6

SEM and TEM analysis for Gri3: images obtained by scanning electrons (top line) and images obtained by transmission electrons (bottom)

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Fig. 7

TG and DSC curves of as-prepared I-doped graphenes: Gri1 (a), Gri2 (b), and Gri3 (c)

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Fig. 8

C1s deconvoluted spectra for the samples: graphene (a) and Gri3 (b)

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Fig. 9

Cyclic voltammograms of commercial graphene and Gri1 (a) and Gri2 (b) recorded between 0.2 and −0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl, with scan rate of 50 mV/s, (c) cyclic voltammograms of the overlapped Gri1 and Gri2 recorded between 0.2 V and −0.5 V versus Ag/AgCl, with scan rate of 50 mV/s, and (d) cyclic voltammograms of commercial graphene and Gri3 recorded between 0.2 V and −0.8 V versus Ag/AgCl

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Fig. 10

Cycling voltammograms showing the effect of sweep rate for the Gri1 (a), Gri2 (b), and Gri3 (c)

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Fig. 11

Chronoamperometric stability measurements for ORR recorded at −0.2 V versus Ag/AgCl and rotation at 1000 rpm in 0.1 M KOH saturated with oxygen

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Fig. 12

Long-term stability measurements of Gri3 carried out by cycling 350 times in 0.1 M KOH saturated with oxygen between 0.2 V and −0.8 V versus Ag/AgCl, with scan rate of 50 mV/s

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Fig. 13

LSV curves for Gri3 at different rotation speeds between 500 rpm and 6000 rpm on RDE in 0.1 M KOH saturated with O2

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Fig. 14

Fitted Koutecky–Levich plots of Gri3 catalyst calculated form LSV currents under variable rotating rates at the potential range of −0.40 V to −0.6 V

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Fig. 15

Polarization curve plots (left) and power density plots (right) of a single hydrogen–air PEMFC

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