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Research Papers

# Perspectives in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Based Microcombined Heat and Power Systems

[+] Author and Article Information
Khaliq Ahmed

Department of Chemical Engineering,
Curtin University,
Bentley, WA 6102, Australia

Karl Föger

Xinnotec Pty. Ltd.,
Kew, Victoria 3101, Australia

Manuscript received November 27, 2016; final manuscript received May 10, 2017; published online June 21, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Robert J. Braun.

J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor. 14(3), 031005 (Jun 21, 2017) (12 pages) Paper No: JEECS-16-1154; doi: 10.1115/1.4036762 History: Received November 27, 2016; Revised May 10, 2017

## Abstract

Fuel cell technology has undergone extensive research and development in the past 20 years. Even though it has not yet made a commercial breakthrough, it is still seen as a promising enabling technology for emissions reduction. The high electrical efficiency (Powell et al., 2012, “Demonstration of a Highly Efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power System Using Adiabatic Steam Reforming and Anode Gas Recirculation,” J. Power Sources, 205, pp. 377–384; Föger and Payne, 2014, “Ceramic Fuel Cells BlueGen—Market Introduction Experience,” 11th European SOFC & SOE Forum 2014, Lucerne, Switzerland, Paper No. A0503; and Payne et al., 2009, “Generating Electricity at 60% Electrical Efficiency From 1-2 kWe SOFC Products,” ECS Trans., 25(2), pp. 231–240) of an solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)-based fuel cell system and the ability to operate on renewable fuels make it an ideal platform for transition from fossil-fuel dependency to a sustainable world relying on renewable energy, by reducing emissions during the transition period where fossil fuels including natural gas remain a major source of energy. Key technical hurdles to commercialization are cost, life, and reliability. Despite significant advances in all areas of the technology cost and durability targets (Papageorgopoulos, 2012, “Fuel Cells, 2012 Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting,” U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC, accessed May 14, 2012, http://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/review12/fc_plenary_papageorgopoulos_2012_o.pdf) have not been met. The major contribution to cost comes from tailor-made balance of plant (BoP) components as SOFC-based systems cannot be optimized functionally with off-the shelf commercial items, and cost targets for BoP and stack cannot be met without volume manufacturing (Föger, 2008, “Materials Basics for Fuel Cells,” Materials for Fuel Cells, M. Gasik ed., Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, pp. 6–63). Reliability issues range from stack degradation and mechanical failure and BoP component failure to grid-interface issues in a grid-connected distributed generation system. Resolving some of these issues are a key to the commercial viability of SOFC-based microcombined heat and power (CHP) systems. This paper highlights some of the technical and practical challenges facing developers of SOFC-based products.

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## Figures

Fig. 1

Performance of CFCL's BlueGen units [3] (the upper and lower bounds indicate the highest and lowest achieved over a number of operating units) and a Bluegen with improved stack degradation

Fig. 2

CFCL's six-layer anode supported cell

Fig. 3

CFCL's 2 × 2 array stack and hot module Gennex

Fig. 4

A BlueGen unit

Fig. 5

System flowsheet [4]

Fig. 6

A 24 h modulation overview of BlueGen 14. The blue line represents the exported power; the green line represents the electrical efficiency [66] (see color figure online).

Fig. 8

Three-dimensional plot of the electrical efficiency versus power development in time for a BlueGen unit modulating between 0.5 kW and 1.5 kW [66]

Fig. 9

Time development of the electrical efficiency at maximum exported power for BlueGen14 [66] (see color figure online)

Fig. 10

Three-dimensional plot of the electrical efficiency versus power development in time for modulation between 0.5 kW and 2.0 kW [66]

Fig. 11

Time development of the electrical efficiency at maximum exported power for BlueGen15 [66]

Fig. 12

Effect of degradation on power modulation profile [66]

Fig. 13

Efficiency versus export power [67]

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