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Research Papers

Innovating Safe Lithium-Ion Batteries Through Basic to Applied Research

[+] Author and Article Information
Corey T. Love

Chemistry Division,
U.S. Naval Research Laboratory,
4555 Overlook Avenue, SW,
Washington, DC 20375
e-mail: corey.love@nrl.navy.mil

Christopher Buesser

EXCET, Inc.,
6225 Brandon Avenue #360,
Springfield, VA 22150
e-mail: Christopher.buesser.ctr@nrl.navy.mil

Michelle D. Johannes

Materials Science and Technology Division,
U.S. Naval Research Laboratory,
4555 Overlook Avenue, SW,
Washington, DC 20375
e-mail: michelle.johannes@nrl.navy.mil

Karen E. Swider-Lyons

Chemistry Division,
U.S. Naval Research Laboratory,
4555 Overlook Avenue, SW,
Washington, DC 20375
e-mail: karen.lyons@nrl.navy.mil

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 2, 2017; final manuscript received August 21, 2017; published online October 25, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Partha P. Mukherjee.The United States Government retains, and by accepting the article for publication, the publisher acknowledges that the United States Government retains, a nonexclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this work, or allow others to do so, for United States government purposes.

J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor. 15(1), 011006 (Oct 25, 2017) (7 pages) Paper No: JEECS-17-1064; doi: 10.1115/1.4038075 History: Received June 02, 2017; Revised August 21, 2017

This paper for inclusion in the special issue provides a brief synopsis of lithium-ion battery safety research efforts at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and presents the viewpoint that lithium-ion battery safety is a growing research area for both academic and applied researchers. We quantify how the number of lithium-ion battery research efforts worldwide has plateaued while publications associated with the safety aspect of lithium-ion batteries are on a rapid incline. The safety challenge creates a unique research opportunity to not only understand basic phenomena but also enhance existing fielded system through advanced controls and prognostics. As the number of lithium-ion battery safety research contributions climbs, significant advancements will come in the area of modeling across multiple time and length scales. Additionally, the utility of in situ and in operando techniques, several performed by the NRL and our collaborators, will feed the data necessary to validate these models. Lithium-ion battery innovations are no longer tied to performance metrics alone, but are increasingly dependent on safety research to unlock their full potential. There is much work to be done.

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References

Choi, J. W. , and Aurbach, D. , 2016, “ Promise and Reality of Post-Lithium-Ion Batteries With High Energy Densities,” Nat. Rev. Mater., 1, p. 16013. [CrossRef]
Sapunkov, O., Pande, V., Khetan, A., Choomwattana, C., and Viswanathan, V., 2015, “ Quantifying the Promise of ‘Beyond’ Li–Ion Batteries,” Transl. Mater. Res., 2(4), p. 045002. [CrossRef]
Urry, A. , 2017, “ Inside the Race to Build the Battery of Tomorrow,” WIRED, Boone, IA, accessed Feb. 22, 2017, https://www.wired.com/2017/02/researchers-racing-build-battery-future/
Shah, K. , Balsara, N. , Banerjee, S. , Chintapalli, M. , Cocco, A. P. , Chiu, W. K. S. , Lahiri, I. , Martha, S. , Mistry, A. , Mukherjee, P. P. , Ramadesigan, V. , Sharma, C. S. , Subramanian, V. R. , Mitra, S. , and Jain, A. , 2017, “ State of the Art and Future Research Needs for Multiscale Analysis of Li-Ion Cells,” ASME J. Electrochem. Energy Convers. Storage, 14(2), p. 020801. [CrossRef]
Abada, S. , Marbair, G. , Lecocq, A. , Petit, M. , Sauvant-Moynot, V. , and Huet, F. , 2016, “ Safety Focused Modeling of Lithium-Ion Batteries: A Review,” J. Power Sources, 306, pp. 178–192. [CrossRef]
Braga, M. H. , Grundish, N. S. , Murchison, A. J. , and Goodenough, J. B. , 2017, “ Alternative Strategy for a Safe Rechargeable Battery,” Energy Environ. Sci., 10(1), pp. 331–336. [CrossRef]
Parker, J. F. , Chervin, C. N. , Pala, I. R. , Machler, M. , Burz, M. F. , Long, J. W. , and Rolison, D. R. , 2017, “ Rechargeable Nickel–3D Zinc Batteries: An Energy-Dense, Safer Alternative to Lithium-Ion,” Science, 356(6336), pp. 415–418. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Love, C. T. , Johannes, M. D. , and Swider-Lyons, K. , 2010, “ Thermal Stability of Delithiated Al-Substituted Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 Cathodes,” ECS Trans., 25(36), pp. 231–240.
Johannes, M. D. , Swider-Lyons, K. , and Love, C. T. , 2016, “ Oxygen Character in the Density of States as an Indicator of the Stability of Li-Ion Battery Cathode Materials,” Solid State Ionics, 286, pp. 83–89. [CrossRef]
Love, C. T. , Dmowski, W. , Johannes, M. D. , and Swider-Lyons, K. E. , 2011, “ Structural Originations of Irreversible Capacity Loss From Highly Lithiated Copper Oxides,” J. Solid State Chem., 184(9), pp. 2412–2419. [CrossRef]
Love, C. T. , Baturina, O. A. , and Swider-Lyons, K. E. , 2015, “ Observation of Lithium Dendrites at Ambient Temperature and Below,” ECS Electrochem. Lett., 4(2), pp. A24–A27. [CrossRef]
Love, C. T. , 2016, “ Perspective on the Mechanical Interaction Between Lithium Dendrites and Polymer Separators at Low Temperature,” ASME J. Electrochem. Energy Convers. Storage, 13(3), p. 031004. [CrossRef]
Chen, C.-F. , Verma, A. , and Mukherjee, P. P. , 2017, “ Probing the Role of Electrode Microstructure in the Lithium-Ion Battery Thermal Behavior,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 164(11), pp. E3146–E3158. [CrossRef]
Love, C. T. , 2011, “ Thermomechanical Analysis and Durability of Commercial Micro-Porous Polymer Li-Ion Battery Separators,” J. Power Sources, 196(5), pp. 2905–2912. [CrossRef]
Love, C. T. , and Swider-Lyons, K. , 2012, “ Impedance Diagnostic for Overcharged Lithium-Ion Batteries,” Electrochem. Solid State Lett., 15(4), pp. A53–A56. [CrossRef]
Love, C. T. , Virji, M. B. V. , Rocheleau, R. E. , and Swider-Lyons, K. E. , 2014, “ State-of-Health Monitoring of 18650 4S Packs With a Single-Point Impedance Diagnostic,” J. Power Sources, 266, pp. 512–519. [CrossRef]
Spinner, N. S. , Love, C. T. , Rose-Pehrsson, S. L. , and Tuttle, S. G. , 2015, “ Expanding the Operational Limits of the Single-Point Impedance Diagnostic for Internal Temperature Monitoring of Lithium-Ion Batteries,” Electrochim. Acta, 174, pp. 488–493. [CrossRef]
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Figures

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Fig. 5

PDOS for M (Fe or Cu) and O in LixFePO4/Li2CuO2 at full discharge (top) and full/partial charge (bottom). Arrows indicate states from which an electron was removed during delithiation. Filled states are to the left of the Fermi energy (set to zero) and empty states to the right. A close-up of the hole states left behind after withdrawal of an electron are shown adjacent to each DOS plot, where oxygen ions are shown as dark spheres. The removed charge is clearly centered around Fe for LiFePO4, but comes heavily from oxygen in Li2CuO2. (Reprinted with permission from Johannes et al. [9]. Copyright 2016 by Elsevier.)

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Fig. 4

Dynamic scanning calorimetry thermograms illustrating the heat of reaction for pristine and delithiated (a) Li1−xNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 and (b) Li1−xNi1/3Co1/3Al1/3O2 heated under argon at 10 °C/min. (Reproduced with permission from Love et al. [8]. Copyright 2010 by The Electrochemical Society.)

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Fig. 3

Number of search results by country for publications with percentage of safety-related papers between 2007 and 2016. Keyword search criteria, TOPIC: (lithium ion OR Li ion OR Li-ion OR Lithium-ion) and TOPIC: (safety).

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Fig. 2

Number of search results by country for publications with a lithium-ion battery safety focus between 2007 and 2016. The top five countries are listed and an other category which is the sum of all other country data. The exponential growth factor (0.33) is higher than for lithium-ion battery publications without a safety focus. Keyword search criteria, TOPIC: (lithium ion OR Li ion OR Li-ion OR Lithium-ion) and TOPIC: (safety).

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Fig. 1

Number of search results by country for publications about lithium-ion batteries between 2007 and 2016. The top five countries are listed and an “other” category which is the sum of all other country data. Keyword search criteria, TOPIC: (“lithium ion” OR “Li ion” OR “Li-ion” OR “Lithium-ion”).

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Fig. 6

Morphology changes of lithium dendrites formed at (a) 20 °C, (b) 5 °C, and (c) −10 °C. Arrows highlight the distinct morphologies (mushroom, balloon-shaped at −10 °C; jagged, needlelike at 5 °C; and granular, microparticulates at 20 °C). (d) tan δ for polymer separators with temperature and (e) schematic interaction of anticipated mechanical interaction between temperature-dependent dendrite morphologies and polymer separators at three thermomechanical regimes [11,12].

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Fig. 7

Thermomechanical behavior of (a) Celgard 2320, an anisotropic battery separator (this behavior is also typical for polymer separators: Celgard 2400 and Celgard 2500) and (b) Entek Gold LP, a nearly isotropic biaxial battery separator, with static load applied in the axial and transverse-directions. (Reprinted with permission from Love [14]. Copyright 2011 by Elsevier.)

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Fig. 8

(a) Phase angle and (b) magnitude of impedance as a function of frequency for data collected between 0% and 100% SOC during discharge and charge. The SOH frequency region is highlighted between the charge transfer, solid-state diffusion and inductance regions where the impedance originated from electrochemical processes is nearly independent of SOC. (Reprinted with permission from Love et al. [16]. Copyright 2014 by Elsevier.)

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Fig. 9

SOH map for a commercial lithium-ion battery cell identifying three regions of impedance response: healthy (normal operation), damaged (a fault has been detected), and unsafe (significant irreversible damage has occurred downgrading cell safety)

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