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Research Papers

Coupled Numerical Approach for Automotive Battery Pack Lifetime Estimates With Thermal Management

[+] Author and Article Information
K. Darcovich

Energy, Mining and Environment Portfolio,
National Research Council of Canada,
Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6, Canada
e-mail: ken.darcovich@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca

D. D. MacNeil, S. Recoskie

Energy, Mining and Environment Portfolio,
National Research Council of Canada,
Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6, Canada

Q. Cadic

ICAM-Toulouse,
75 Avenue de Grande Bretagne,
Toulouse 31300, France

F. Ilinca

Automotive and Surface Transportation Portfolio,
National Research Council of Canada,
Boucherville, QC J4B 6Y4, Canada

B. Kenney

Dana Canada Corp.,
656 Kerr Street,
Oakville, ON L6K 3E4, Canada

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received October 18, 2016; final manuscript received September 5, 2017; published online February 6, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Jan Van Herle.This work was prepared while under employment by the Government of Canada as part of the official duties of the author(s) indicated above, as such copyright is owned by that Government, which reserves its own copyright under national law.

J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor. 15(2), 021004 (Feb 06, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: JEECS-16-1140; doi: 10.1115/1.4038631 History: Received October 18, 2016; Revised September 05, 2017

This study combined a simple two-dimensional (2D) finite volume model (Kim model), which employs Ohm's law along with charge conservation over the electrodes and Butler–Volmer charge transfer kinetics for prismatic battery cells coupled with the single particle model (SPM) in order to model the thermal state of automotive battery packs. The objective here was to determine the effects of liquid cooling applied to the packs under standard driving cycles. A model developed by Kim provided a means for determining a nonuniform current distribution over the surface of the current collectors. The Kim model is based on the application of Ohm's law over a conducting medium, with empirical source terms representing current flowing into or out of an adjacent electrode layer. Here, a modeling advance is presented where empirical source terms in the Kim model were replaced with ones based on the chemistry and physics occurring inside the battery. As such, fundamental battery function was imparted to the model by integrating the SPM into the 2D finite volume Kim model. The 2D procedure described above was carried out on electrode sheets at different positions inside the cell, and determined thermal generation values that were mapped volumetrically into a heat transfer simulation, which, in turn, updated the electrochemical simulation. Capacity fade kinetics were determined by fitting experimental data to simulated results. With time-temperature profiles produced as described above for different pack cooling levels and varying degrees of cell degradation, a basic SPM simulation was then used with thermal overlays to estimate automotive cell life under various driving scenarios and various cooling levels. With these simulations, scenarios representing different thermal management regimes along with driving behavior were able to show the combined impact on automotive battery pack lifetimes.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of the two coupled electrode domains required for the numerical implementation of the Kim model

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Fig. 2

Long-term cycling data obtained for determining capacity fade parameters. The parametric scale is given in ° C.

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Fig. 6

In-house dynamometer data showing current draw on a per cell basis for the 30 Ah cells considered here subjected to a US06 drive cycle

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Fig. 3

Schematic of the method to couple the Kim–SPM electrochemical battery model with a thermal simulation

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Fig. 4

Prismatic cell configuration reference for thermal simulation

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Fig. 5

Reference data for (a) US06 and (b) HWY drive cycles

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Fig. 7

Average cell temperatures over 50 km driving for (a) US06 and (b) HWY drive cycles, with cooling level h = 340 W/m2 K for various levels of SOH

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Fig. 8

(a) Maximum cell temperature over 50 km driving as function of cooling effort and (b) maximum temperature gradient within cell for 50 km US06 versus cooling effort

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Fig. 9

Comparison of maximum temperature versus cooling level for a new cell and one at 75% SOH

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Fig. 10

Time-temperature profiles for 50 km of US06 driving with different upper voltage limits

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Fig. 11

Percent original cell capacity versus time for daily 50 km of US06 driving at h = 340 W/(m2 K)

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Fig. 12

Percent original cell capacity versus time for daily 50 km of US06 driving at various cooling levels

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Fig. 13

Percent original cell capacity versus time for daily 50 km of US06 and HWY driving with air and liquid cooling

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Fig. 14

Percent original capacity versus time for liquid cooled automotive cells used for 50 km of daily US06 driving for different upper voltage limits

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