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Research Papers

Hybridization Scheme for a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell/Supercapacitor System

[+] Author and Article Information
Marco A. Rodríguez

Automation Engineer,
140 Greystone Lane Suite # 6,
Rochester, NY 14618
e-mail: mrodrig6@binghamton.edu

Alok Rastogi

Associate Professor
University of Binghamton State University
of New York,
4400 Vestal Parkway East,
Binghamton, NY 13902
e-mail: arastogi@binghamton.edu

Victor Skormin

Distinguished Service Professor
University of Binghamton State University
of New York,
4400 Vestal Parkway East,
Binghamton, NY 13902
e-mail: vskormin@binghamton.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received June 21, 2017; final manuscript received March 21, 2018; published online April 20, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Bengt Sunden.

J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor. 15(4), 041005 (Apr 20, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: JEECS-17-1075; doi: 10.1115/1.4039788 History: Received June 21, 2017; Revised March 21, 2018

Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells suffer noticeable power loss when operated at high power output. This paper proposes a hybridization scheme for a PEM fuel cell/supercapacitor system operating in three different regimes: “Flat,” “Uphill,” and “Downhill.” Transitions among operational regimes are governed by logical statements, which compare operational parameters against threshold values. These threshold values were obtained using a genetic optimization (GO) algorithm. The hybridization problem is analyzed in a simulation environment before the solution is implemented in an actual laboratory prototype. Results and discussion are presented to demonstrate the soundness of the proposed solution. The approach presented in this paper is suitable for applications where sudden changes in power demand occur.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Hybridization regimes and valid transitions

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Fig. 2

Power flow for each regime: (a) Power flow—flat regime, (b) power flow—uphill regime, and (c) power flow—downhill regime

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Fig. 3

General laboratory prototype overview

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Fig. 4

30 W PEM fuel cell

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Fig. 5

Supercapacitor bank

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Fig. 6

Car drive and car external load motors

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Fig. 8

Electrical schematic of the car external load motor—uphill emulation

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Fig. 9

Electrical schematic of the car external load motor—downhill emulation

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Fig. 10

Fuel cell modeling: experimental versus model

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Fig. 11

PID implementation

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Fig. 12

Simulation of ‘Uphill’ and ‘Flat’ operation using PID speed controller: (a) Simulation of car drive motor speed using PID speed controller. Uphill operation. (b) Simulation of fuel cell's and supercapacitors' currents using PID speed controller. Uphill operation.

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Fig. 13

Simulation of ‘Downhill’ operation using PID speed controller: (a) Simulation of car drive motor speed using PID speed controller. Downhill operation. (b) Simulation of supercapacitor's voltage using PID speed controller. Downhill operation.

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Fig. 14

‘Uphill’ and ‘Flat’ operation of hybrid system using PID speed controller: (a) Car drive motor speed in hybrid operation using PID speed controller. First hill. (b) Car drive motor” speed in hybrid operation using PID speed controller. Second hill. (c) Fuel cell's and supercapacitors' currents in hybrid operation using PID speed controller. First hill. (d) Fuel cell's and supercapacitors' currents in hybrid operation using PID speed controller. Second hill.

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Fig. 15

Downhill and flat operation of hybrid system using PID speed controller: (a) Car drive motor speed in hybrid operation using PID speed controller. First downhill. (b) Car drive motor speed in hybrid operation using PID speed controller. Second downhill. (c) Supercapacitors' voltage in hybrid operation using PID speed controller. First downhill. (d) Supercapacitors' voltage in hybrid operation using PID speed controller. Second downhill.

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