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Research Papers

Microtubular Hard Carbon Derived From Willow Catkins as an Anode Material With Enhanced Performance for Sodium-Ion Batteries

[+] Author and Article Information
Yongqiang Teng

Institute of Electrical Engineering,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Beijing 100190, China

Maosong Mo

Institute of Electrical Engineering,
Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Beijing 100190, China;
School of Engineering Science,
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Beijing 100049, China
e-mail: msmo@mail.iee.ac.cn; msmo@ustc.edu

Yuan Li

School of Materials Science and Engineering,
University of Science and Technology Beijing,
Beijing 100083, China

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received November 20, 2017; final manuscript received July 11, 2018; published online August 20, 2018. Assoc. Editor: San Ping Jiang.

J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor. 15(4), 041010 (Aug 20, 2018) (5 pages) Paper No: JEECS-17-1135; doi: 10.1115/1.4040922 History: Received November 20, 2017; Revised July 11, 2018

As a kind of common bio-waste, willow catkin is of no economic value. But it is surprising that it can be an ideal carbonaceous source and bio-template for electrode materials of lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors. Herein, we demonstrate that microtubular hard carbon can be derived from willow catkins and used as an anode of sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). The sample obtained from carbonization at 1000 °C delivers a high reversible capacity of 210 mAh g−1, good rate capability, and excellent cycling stability (112 mAh g−1 at 1000 mA g−1 after 1600 cycles) due to its unique tubular structure and the N-doping characteristic. The present work affords a new candidate for the production of hard carbon materials with tubular microstructure using natural biomass, and develops a highly promising anode material for SIBs.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

(a) X-ray powder diffraction patterns, insets of (a): optical photographs of willow catkin (left) and NCT-700 (right), SEM image of willow catkin (top) and (b) Raman spectra of the samples at 700 °C and 1000 °C

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Fig. 2

Typical XPS survey spectrum (a) and corresponding N 1 s XPS spectrum (b) of the NCT-1000 sample

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Fig. 3

Field-emission scanning electron microscope images of NCT-700 (a) and (b) and NCT-1000 (c); TEM images of NCT-700 (d) and (e), and NCT-1000 (f)

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Fig. 4

Cyclic voltammogram curves of the initial three cycles for (a) NCT-700 and (b) NCT-1000

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Fig. 5

(a) Discharge-charge profiles and (b) cycle performances at 100 mA g−1 of NCT-700 and NCT-1000 electrodes

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Fig. 6

Rate capabilities of NCT-700 and NCT-1000 electrodes

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Fig. 7

Cycle performance at 1 A g−1 of NCT-1000 electrode

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