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Research Papers

Investigation of Subsystems for Combination into a SOFC-Based CCHP System

[+] Author and Article Information
Christof Weinlaender

Institute of Thermal Engineering,
Graz University of Technology,
Inffeldgasse 25/B,
Graz A-8010, Austria
e-mail: christof.weinlaender@tugraz.at

Johannes Albert

Institute of Thermal Engineering,
Graz University of Technology,
Inffeldgasse 25/B,
Graz A-8010, Austria
e-mail: johannes.albert@tugraz.at

Christian Gaber

Institute of Thermal Engineering,
Graz University of Technology,
Inffeldgasse 25/B,
Graz A-8010, Austria
e-mail: christian.gaber@tugraz.at

Martin Hauth

AVL,
Hans-List-Platz 1,
Graz A-8020, Austria
e-mail: martin.hauth@avl.com

René Rieberer

Institute of Thermal Engineering,
Graz University of Technology,
Inffeldgasse 25/B,
Graz A-8010, Austria
e-mail: rene.rieberer@tugraz.at

Christoph Hochenauer

Institute of Thermal Engineering,
Graz University of Technology,
Inffeldgasse 25/B,
Graz A-8010, Austria
e-mail: christoph.hochenauer@tugraz.at

Manuscript received February 7, 2018; final manuscript received September 30, 2018; published online November 19, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Robert J. Braun.

J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor. 16(2), 021003 (Nov 19, 2018) (12 pages) Paper No: JEECS-18-1015; doi: 10.1115/1.4041727 History: Received February 07, 2018; Revised September 30, 2018

This paper presents the development of the subsystems for stationary biogas powered solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)-based combined cooling, heat and power (CCHP). For certain applications, such as buildings, a heat-driven operation mode leads to low operating hours per year for conventional combined heat and power (CHP) systems due to the low heat demand during the summer season. The objectives of this study are the evaluation of an adsorber, a steam reformer, a SOFC, and an absorption chiller (AC). Biogas, however, contains impurities in the form of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), hydrogen chloride (HCl), and siloxanes in different concentrations, which have a negative effect on the performance and durability of the SOFC and, in the case of H2S, also on the catalyst of the steam reformer. This paper describes different experimental sections: (i) the biogas treatment with its main focus on H2S separation and steam reforming, (ii) the setup and start-up of a 10 cell SOFC stack, and (iii) test runs with an AC using a mixture of NH3 (ammonia)/H2O (water). The components required for the engineering process of the subsystem's structure are described in detail and possible options for system design are explained. The evaluation is the basis to reveal the improvement potentials, which have to be considered in future product developments. This paper aims at comparing experimental data of the test rigs to develop an understanding of the requirements for a stable and continuous operation of a SOFC-based CCHP operated by biogas.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Theoretical calculation of prime energy utilization based on traditional energy supply mode (top) and CCHP system (bottom) [1]

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Fig. 2

Solid oxide fuel cell based CCHP system flowsheet

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Fig. 3

Energy balance of the SOFC CCHP system

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Fig. 4

Scheme of a possible application scenario of the SOFC CCHP

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Fig. 5

Flowchart of adsorption test rig

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Fig. 6

Flowchart of nickel catalyst test rig

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Fig. 7

(a) Picture of SOFC test rig and (b) flowchart of SOFC test rig

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Fig. 8

(a) Picture of the AC test rig and (b) scheme of the AC test rig

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Fig. 9

Effect of gas composition on H2S outlet concentration; reaction temperature 60 °C; GHSV 8000 h−1; and H2S inlet concentration 200 ppmv

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Fig. 10

Facing the experimental results and the simulated equilibria; S/C ratio = 2 and GHSV 1000 h−1

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Fig. 11

Comparison between test runs with GHSV 1000 and 1500 h−1; S/C = 2 and temperature 600 °C

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Fig. 12

Reference point ηFU = 60%

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Fig. 13

Consequences of r on COP at different T10

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Fig. 14

Consequences of r on εSHX at different T10

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Fig. 15

Consequences of r on cooling capacity and xref

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Fig. 16

Efficiencies of the AC and SOFC CCHP in dependence of the exhaust gas mass flow rate

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Fig. 17

Capacities of the AC and SOFC CCHP in dependence of the exhaust gas mass flow rate

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