0
Research Papers

Temperature Distribution Optimization of an Air-Cooling Lithium-Ion Battery Pack in Electric Vehicles Based on the Response Surface Method

[+] Author and Article Information
Xiangping Liao

College of Mechanical Engineering,
Hunan University of Humanities,
Science and Technology,
Loudi City 417000, China;
College of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering,
Central South University,
Changsha City 410083, China
e-mail: 520joff@163.com

Chong Ma

Intelligent Manufacturing Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education,
Shantou University,
Shantou City 515063, China
e-mail: 17cma@stu.edu.cn

Xiongbin Peng

Intelligent Manufacturing Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education,
Shantou University,
Shantou City 515063, China
e-mail: xbpeng@stu.edu.cn

Akhil Garg

Intelligent Manufacturing Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education,
Shantou University,
Shantou City 515063, China
e-mail: akhil@stu.edu.cn

Nengsheng Bao

Intelligent Manufacturing Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education,
Shantou University,
Shantou City 515063, China
e-mail: nsbao@stu.edu.cn

2Corresponding author.

1These authors contributed equally to the paper.

Manuscript received October 28, 2018; final manuscript received February 4, 2019; published online March 12, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Ankur Jain.

J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor. 16(4), 041002 (Mar 12, 2019) (8 pages) Paper No: JEECS-18-1115; doi: 10.1115/1.4042922 History: Received October 28, 2018; Accepted February 05, 2019

Electric vehicles have become a trend in recent years, and the lithium-ion battery pack provides them with high power and energy. The battery thermal system with air cooling was always used to prevent the high temperature of the battery pack to avoid cycle life reduction and safety issues of lithium-ion batteries. This work employed an easily applied optimization method to design a more efficient battery pack with lower temperature and more uniform temperature distribution. The proposed method consisted of four steps: the air-cooling system design, computational fluid dynamics code setups, selection of surrogate models, and optimization of the battery pack. The investigated battery pack contained eight prismatic cells, and the cells were discharged under normal driving conditions. It was shown that the optimized design performs a lower maximum temperature of 2.7 K reduction and a smaller temperature standard deviation of 0.3 K reduction than the original design. This methodology can also be implemented in industries where the battery pack contains more battery cells.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Rao, Z., and Wang, S., 2011, “A Review of Power Battery Thermal Energy Management,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., 15(9), pp. 4554–4571. [CrossRef]
Shui, L., Peng, X., Zhang, J., Garg, A., Nguyen, H.-d., and Phung Le, M. L., 2019, “A Coupled Mechanical–Electrochemical Study of Li-Ion Battery Based on Genetic Programming and Experimental Validation,” ASME J. Electrochem. Energy Convers. Storage, 16(1), p. 011008. [CrossRef]
Niu, L., Geng, S., Li, H., Du, S., Cui, X., and Li, S., 2018, “Influence of Roasting Temperature on Electrochemical Performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 Cathode for Lithium-Ion Battery,” ASME J. Electrochem. Energy Convers. Storage, 15(2), p. 021007. [CrossRef]
Pesaran, A. A., 2002, “Battery Thermal Models for Hybrid Vehicle Simulations,” J. Power Sources, 110(2), pp. 377–382. [CrossRef]
Mahamud, R., and Park, C., 2011, “Reciprocating Air Flow for Li-Ion Battery Thermal Management to Improve Temperature Uniformity,” J. Power Sources, 196(13), pp. 5685–5696. [CrossRef]
Chen, K., Wang, S., Song, M., and Chen, L., 2017, “Configuration Optimization of Battery Pack in Parallel Air-Cooled Battery Thermal Management System Using an Optimization Strategy,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 123, pp. 177–186. [CrossRef]
Wang, T., Tseng, K. J., Zhao, J., and Wei, Z., 2014, “Thermal Investigation of Lithium-Ion Battery Module With Different Cell Arrangement Structures and Forced Air-Cooling Strategies,” Appl. Energy, 134, pp. 229–238. [CrossRef]
Yang, N., Zhang, X., Li, G., and Hua, D., 2015, “Assessment of the Forced Air-Cooling Performance for Cylindrical Lithium-Ion Battery Packs: A Comparative Analysis Between Aligned and Staggered Cell Arrangements,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 80, pp. 55–65. [CrossRef]
Zhao, J., Rao, Z., Huo, Y., Liu, X., and Li, Y., 2015, “Thermal Management of Cylindrical Power Battery Module for Extending the Life of New Energy Electric Vehicles,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 85, pp. 33–43. [CrossRef]
Zhao, J., Rao, Z., and Li, Y., 2015, “Thermal Performance of Mini-Channel Liquid Cooled Cylinder Based Battery Thermal Management for Cylindrical Lithium-Ion Power Battery,” Energy Convers. Manage., 103, pp. 157–165. [CrossRef]
Panchal, S., Khasow, R., Dincer, I., Agelin-Chaab, M., Fraser, R., and Fowler, M., 2017, “Thermal Design and Simulation of Mini-Channel Cold Plate for Water Cooled Large Sized Prismatic Lithium-Ion Battery,” Appl. Therm. Eng., 122, pp. 80–90. [CrossRef]
Greco, A., Cao, D., Jiang, X., and Yang, H., 2014, “A Theoretical and Computational Study of Lithium-Ion Battery Thermal Management for Electric Vehicles Using Heat Pipes,” J. Power Sources, 257, pp. 344–355. [CrossRef]
Goli, P., Legedza, S., Dhar, A., Salgado, R., Renteria, J., and Balandin, A. A., 2014, “Graphene-Enhanced Hybrid Phase Change Materials for Thermal Management of Li-Ion Batteries,” J. Power Sources, 248, pp. 37–43. [CrossRef]
Samimi, F., Babapoor, A., Azizi, M., and Karimi, G., 2016, “Thermal Management Analysis of a Li-Ion Battery Cell Using Phase Change Material Loaded With Carbon Fibers,” Energy, 96, pp. 355–371. [CrossRef]
Ling, Z., Wang, F., Fang, X., Gao, X., and Zhang, Z., 2015, “A Hybrid Thermal Management System for Lithium Ion Batteries Combining Phase Change Materials With Forced-Air Cooling,” Appl. Energy, 148, pp. 403–409. [CrossRef]
Rao, Z., Wang, Q., and Huang, C., 2016, “Investigation of the Thermal Performance of Phase Change Material/Mini-Channel Coupled Battery Thermal Management System,” Appl. Energy, 164, pp. 659–669. [CrossRef]
Wang, Q., Rao, Z., Huo, Y., and Wang, S., 2016, “Thermal Performance of Phase Change Material/Oscillating Heat Pipe-Based Battery Thermal Management System,” Int. J. Therm. Sci., 102, pp. 9–16. [CrossRef]
Shui, L., Chen, F., Garg, A., Peng, X., Bao, N., and Zhang, J., 2018, “Design Optimization of Battery Pack Enclosure for Electric Vehicle,” Struct. Multidiscipl. Optim., 58, pp. 331–347. [CrossRef]
Garg, A., Peng, X., Le, M. L. P., Pareek, K., and Chin, C. M. M., 2018, “Design and Analysis of Capacity Models for Lithium-Ion Battery,” Measurement, 120, pp. 114–120. [CrossRef]
Fan, L., Khodadadi, J. M., and Pesaran, A. A., 2013, “A Parametric Study on Thermal Management of an Air-Cooled Lithium-Ion Battery Module for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles,” J. Power Sources, 238, pp. 301–312. [CrossRef]
Aksoy, D. O., and Sagol, E., 2016, “Application of Central Composite Design Method to Coal Flotation: Modelling, Optimization and Verification,” Fuel, 183, pp. 609–616. [CrossRef]
Goswami, S., Ghosh, S., and Chakraborty, S., 2016, “Reliability Analysis of Structures by Iterative Improved Response Surface Method,” Struct. Safety, 60, pp. 56–66. [CrossRef]
Neupane, S., Alipanah, M., Barnes, D., and Li, X., 2018, “Heat Generation Characteristics of LiFePO4 Pouch Cells With Passive Thermal Management,” Energies, 11(5), pp. 1243–1256. [CrossRef]
Khan, S., Naseem, I., Togneri, R., and Bennamoun, M., 2017, “A Novel Adaptive Kernel for the RBF Neural Networks,” Circ. Syst. Signal Process., 36(4), pp. 1639–1653. [CrossRef]
Saltelli, A., Ratto, M., Andres, T., Campolongo, F., Cariboni, J., Gatelli, D., Saisana, M., and Tarantola, S., 2008, Global Sensitivity Analysis, The Primer, John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the battery pack

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Procedure of the air-cooling battery pack optimum design

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Experimental setup of the battery cell and battery pack: (a) heat generation setup of a single cell battery and (b) basic structure of the battery pack with air cooling

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Comparison of the maximum temperature of the battery pack with the variation of inlet wind velocity at different grid numbers

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Comparison of the experimental and simulation temperature on the surface of the middle part of a single cell battery

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Sensitivity analysis showing the influences of each of the design variables on the objectives

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

RSM diagram of the effect of d9 and d10 on the average temperature of all battery cells

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

RSM diagram of the influence of battery spacing on the average temperature of each battery

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Comparison of battery cell average temperatures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Experimental setup of the air-cooled battery pack

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Comparisons between the calculated and experimental results: (a) initial design, (b) candidate design 1, and (c) candidate design 2

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In