Research Papers

Accelerated Degradation for Hardware in the Loop Simulation of Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine Hybrid System

[+] Author and Article Information
Maria A. Abreu-Sepulveda

U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory,
3610 Collins Ferry Road,
Morgantown, WV 26507
e-mail: maria.abreu-sepulveda@contr.netl.doe.gov

Nor Farida Harun

Department of Chemical Engineering,
McMaster University,
Hamilton, ON L8S 4L7, Canada
e-mail: adfarimie@yahoo.com

Gregory Hackett

U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory,
3610 Collins Ferry Road,
Morgantown, WV 26507
e-mail: gregory.hackett@netl.doe.gov

Anke Hagen

Department of Energy Conversion,
Technical University of Denmark,
Roskilde 4000, Denmark
e-mail: anke@dtu.dk

David Tucker

U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory,
3610 Collins Ferry Road,
Morgantown, WV 26507
e-mail: david.tucker@netl.doe.gov

Contributed by the Advanced Energy Systems Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF FUEL CELL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received July 14, 2014; final manuscript received September 8, 2014; published online December 17, 2014. Editor: Nigel M. Sammes.

The United States Government retains, and by accepting the article for publication, the publisher acknowledges that the United States Government retains, a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, worldwide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this work, or allow others to do so, for United States government purposes.

J. Fuel Cell Sci. Technol 12(2), 021001 (Apr 01, 2015) (7 pages) Paper No: FC-14-1084; doi: 10.1115/1.4028953 History: Received July 14, 2014; Revised September 08, 2014; Online December 17, 2014

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) in Morgantown, WV has developed the hybrid performance (HyPer) project in which a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) one-dimensional (1D), real-time operating model is coupled to a gas turbine hardware system by utilizing hardware-in-the-loop simulation. To assess the long-term stability of the SOFC part of the system, electrochemical degradation due to operating conditions such as current density and fuel utilization have been incorporated into the SOFC model and successfully recreated in real time. The mathematical expression for degradation rate was obtained through the analysis of empirical voltage versus time plots for different current densities and fuel utilizations.

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Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the HyPer facility and (b) simplified fuel cell model

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Fig. 2

(a) Output voltage of planar SOFC at 750 °C for at several current densities and 75–85% Uf. (b) Degradation rate as function of current density at 750 (•), 800 (Δ), and 850 °C (○).

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Fig. 3

Extrapolated plots for the different operating temperatures

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Fig. 4

Degradation rate as function of fuel utilization

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Fig. 5

(a) and (b) PID controller for the output power and fuel utilization during standalone operation, (c) PID for the total power of the system during hybrid operation

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Fig. 6

SOFC parameters: (a) power output was held constant by increasing the current demand and (b) increase in fuel flow to maintain fuel utilization constant at the predetermined value

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Fig. 7

3D plot for the current density of the SOFC per node over time

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Fig. 8

Current density distribution per node at time zero and after 4600 h before failing

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Fig. 9

Voltage losses, from top to bottom: activation loss, ohmic loss, and diffusion loss at time zero and before failure

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Fig. 10

Fuel cell cathode temperature per node over time

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Fig. 11

Change in temperature per node at time zero and right before SOFC failure

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Fig. 12

Total output power of the system was kept constant during the hybrid real time simulation while fuel cell voltage was decreasing due to degradation



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