0
Research Papers

Membrane-Less Hydrogen Iron Redox Flow Battery

[+] Author and Article Information
Kyamra Marma, Jayanth Kolli

Electrochemical and Thermal Energy Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Northern Illinois University,
DeKalb, IL 60115

Kyu Taek Cho

Electrochemical and Thermal Energy Laboratory,
Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Northern Illinois University,
DeKalb, IL 60115
e-mail: kcho@niu.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received January 19, 2018; final manuscript received May 10, 2018; published online June 26, 2018. Assoc. Editor: George Nelson.

J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor. 16(1), 011005 (Jun 26, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: JEECS-18-1008; doi: 10.1115/1.4040329 History: Received January 19, 2018; Revised May 10, 2018

In this study, a new type of redox flow battery (RFB) named “membrane-less hydrogen-iron RFB” was investigated for the first time. The membrane is a cell component dominating the cost of RFB, and iron is an abundant, inexpensive, and benign material, and thus, this iron RFB without the membrane is expected to provide a solution to the challenging issues of current battery systems such as high cost and safety concerns. The research focus in this study was placed on defining key design parameters to make this new system promising as an RFB. Crossing rate of reactants over carbon porous electrode (CPE) was controlled by modifying its pore structure with Teflon impregnation, and the effects of the Teflon on crossover, kinetic, Ohmic, and mass transfer was investigated by cell-based test and one-dimensional computational model. It was found that the cell performance (i.e., charge and discharge polarization) of the new membrane-less system was equivalent to that of the conventional membrane-system (i.e., RFB having a membrane). Especially, the Ohmic properties of the new system were constant and stable, while in the conventional membrane system, they were significantly varied and deteriorated as cell tests were continued, indicating that degradation or contamination of membrane affecting Ohmic properties could be mitigated effectively in the membrane-less system, which was found first in this research. The modeling analysis provided insight into the system, showing that the effect of reactant crossover on performance decay was not significant, and Teflon impregnation in the CPE caused significant kinetic and Ohmic losses by impeding ion transport and reactant access to reaction sites. From this study, it was found that the membrane-less H2-iron system is feasible and promising in resolving the challenge issues of the conventional systems. And the results of this study are expected to provide guidelines for research and development of flow battery systems without having a membrane.

FIGURES IN THIS ARTICLE
<>
Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Yang, Z. , Zhang, J. , Kintner-Meyer, M. C. W. , Lu, X. , Choi, D. , Lemmon, J. P. , and Liu, J. , 2011, “ Electrochemical Energy Storage for Green Grid,” Chem. Rev., 111(5), pp. 3577–3613. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Weber, A. , Mench, M. , Meyers, J. , Ross, P. , Gostick, J. , and Liu, Q. , 2011, “ Redox Flow Batteries: A Review,” J. Appl. Electrochem., 41(10), pp. 1137–1164. [CrossRef]
Cho, K. T. , Tucker, M. C. , and Weber, A. Z. , 2016, “ A Review of Hydrogen/Halogen Flow Cells,” Energy Technol., 4(6), pp. 655–678. [CrossRef]
Duduta, M. , Ho, B. , Wood, V. C. , Limthongkul, P. , Brunini, V. E. , Carter, W. C. , and Chiang, Y.-M. , 2011, “ Semi-Solid Lithium Rechargeable Flow Battery,” Adv. Energy Mater., 1(4), pp. 511–516. [CrossRef]
Jia, C. , Pan, F. , Zhu, Y. G. , Huang, Q. , Lu, L. , and Wang, Q. , 2015, “ High–Energy Density Nonaqueous All Redox Flow Lithium Battery Enabled With a Polymeric Membrane,” Sci. Adv., 1(10), p. e1500886. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Tolmachev, Y. V. , Piatkivskyi, A. , Ryzhov, V. V. , Konev, D. V. , and Vorotyntsev, M. A. , 2015, “ Energy Cycle Based on a High Specific Energy Aqueous Flow Battery and Its Potential Use for Fully Electric Vehicles and for Direct Solar-to-Chemical Energy Conversion,” J. Solid State Electrochem., 19(9), pp. 2711–2722. [CrossRef]
Cho, K. T. , Albertus, P. , Battaglia, V. , Kojic, A. , Srinivasan, V. , and Weber, A. Z. , 2013, “ Optimization and Analysis of High-Power Hydrogen/Bromine-Flow Batteries for Grid-Scale Energy Storage,” Energy Technol., 1(10), pp. 596–608. [CrossRef]
Kjeang, E. , Michel, R. , Harrington, D. A. , Djilali, N. , and Sinton, D. , 2008, “ A Microfluidic Fuel Cell With Flow-Through Porous Electrodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 130(12), pp. 4000–4006. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kjeang, E. , Djilali, N. , and Sinton, D. , 2009, “ Microfluidic Fuel Cells: A Review,” J. Power Sources, 186(2), pp. 353–369. [CrossRef]
Mousavi Shaegh, S. A. , Nguyen, N.-T. , and Chan, S. H. , 2011, “ A Review on Membraneless Laminar Flow-Based Fuel Cells,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 36(9), pp. 5675–5694. [CrossRef]
Braff, W. A. , Bazant, M. Z. , and Buie, C. R. , 2013, “ Membrane-Less Hydrogen Bromine Flow Battery,” Nat Commun, 4(1), p. 2346. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Tucker, M. , Srinivasan, V. , Ross, P. , and Weber, A. , 2013, “ Performance and Cycling of the Iron-Ion/Hydrogen Redox Flow Cell With Various Catholyte Salts,” J. Appl. Electrochem., 43(7), pp. 637–644. [CrossRef]
Tucker, M. C. , Cho, K. T. , and Weber, A. Z. , 2014, “ Optimization of the Iron-Ion/Hydrogen Redox Flow Cell With Iron Chloride Catholyte Salt,” J. Power Sources, 245, pp. 691–697. [CrossRef]
Alon, M. , Blum, A. , and Peled, E. , 2013, “ Feasibility Study of Hydrogen/Iron Redox Flow Cell for Grid-Storage Applications,” J. Power Sources, 240, pp. 417–420. [CrossRef]
Watson, V. , Nguyen, D. , Effiong, E. E. , and Kalu, E. E. , 2015, “ Influence of Mixed Electrolyte on the Performance of Iron-Ion/Hydrogen Redox Flow Battery,” ECS Electrochem. Lett., 4(7), pp. A72–A75. [CrossRef]
Hong, S. , Hou, M. , Zhang, H. , Jiang, Y. , Shao, Z. , and Yi, B. , 2017, “ A High-Performance PEM Fuel Cell With Ultralow Platinum Electrode Via Electrospinning and Underpotential Deposition,” Electrochim. Acta, 245, pp. 403–409. [CrossRef]
Tucker, M. , Cho, K. , Weber, A. , Lin, G. , and Van Nguyen, T. , 2015, “ Optimization of Electrode Characteristics for the Br2/H2 Redox Flow Cell,” J. Appl. Electrochem., 45(1), pp. 11–19. [CrossRef]
Park, G.-G. , Sohn, Y.-J. , Yang, T.-H. , Yoon, Y.-G. , Lee, W.-Y. , and Kim, C.-S. , 2004, “ Effect of PTFE Contents in the Gas Diffusion Media on the Performance of PEMFC,” J. Power Sources, 131(1–2), pp. 182–187. [CrossRef]
Tucker, M. C. , Cho, K. T. , Spingler, F. B. , Weber, A. Z. , and Lin, G. , 2015, “ Impact of Membrane Characteristics on the Performance and Cycling of the Br2–H2 Redox Flow Cell,” J. Power Sources, 284, pp. 212–221. [CrossRef]
Cho, K. T. , Tucker, M. C. , Ding, M. , Ridgway, P. , Battaglia, V. S. , Srinivasan, V. , and Weber, A. Z. , 2015, “ Cyclic Performance Analysis of Hydrogen/Bromine Flow Batteries for Grid-Scale Energy Storage,” ChemPlusChem, 80(2), pp. 402–411. [CrossRef]
Cho, K. T. , Ridgway, P. , Weber, A. Z. , Haussener, S. , Battaglia, V. , and Srinivasan, V. , 2012, “ High Performance Hydrogen/Bromine Redox Flow Battery for Grid-Scale Energy Storage,” J. Electrochem. Soc, 159(11), pp. A1806–A1815. [CrossRef]
Kusoglu, A. , Cho, K. T. , Prato, R. A. , and Weber, A. Z. , 2013, “ Structural and Transport Properties of Nafion in Hydrobromic-Acid Solutions,” Solid State Ionics, 252, pp. 68–74. [CrossRef]
Tang, Z. , Svoboda, R. , Lawton, J. S. , Aaron, D. S. , Papandrew, A. B. , and Zawodzinski, T. A. , 2013, “ Composition and Conductivity of Membranes Equilibrated With Solutions of Sulfuric Acid and Vanadyl Sulfate,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 160(9), pp. F1040–F1047. [CrossRef]
Okada, T. , Ayato, Y. , Yuasa, M. , and Sekine, I. , 1999, “ The Effect of Impurity Cations on the Transport Characteristics of Perfluorosulfonated Ionomer Membranes,” J. Phys. Chem. B, 103(17), pp. 3315–3322. [CrossRef]
Okada, T. , 2010, “ Effect of Ionic Contaminants,” Handbook of Fuel Cells, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ. [CrossRef] [PubMed] [PubMed]
Skyllas-Kazacos, M. , 2003, “ Novel Vanadium Chloride/Polyhalide Redox Flow Battery,” J. Power Sources, 124(1), pp. 299–302. [CrossRef]
Chan, K. Y. , and Savinell, R. F. , 1991, “ Modeling Calculations of an Aluminum‐Air Cell,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 138(7), pp. 1976–1984. [CrossRef]
Muñoz, C. A. P. , Dewage, H. H. , Yufit, V. , and Brandon, N. P. , 2017, “ A Unit Cell Model of a Regenerative Hydrogen-Vanadium Fuel Cell,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 164(14), pp. F1717–F1732. [CrossRef]
Revankar, S. , and Majumdar, P. , 2014, Fuel Cells: Principles, Design, and Analysis, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Pasaogullari, U. , and Wang, C. Y. , 2004, “ Liquid Water Transport in Gas Diffusion Layer of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 151(3), pp. A399–A406. [CrossRef]
Newman, J. , and Thomas-Alyea, K. E. , 2004, Electrochemical Systems, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
Mench, M. M. , 2008, Fuel Cell Engines, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ. [CrossRef]
Sun, B. , and Skyllas-Kazakos, M. , 1991, “ Chemical Modification and Electrochemical Behaviour of Graphite Fibre in Acidic Vanadium Solution,” Electrochim. Acta, 36(3–4), pp. 513–517. [CrossRef]
Sun, B. , and Skyllas-Kazacos, M. , 1992, “ Modification of Graphite Electrode Materials for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Application—I: Thermal Treatment,” Electrochim. Acta, 37(7), pp. 1253–1260. [CrossRef]
Sun, B. , and Skyllas-Kazacos, M. , 1992, “ Chemical Modification of Graphite Electrode Materials for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Application—Part II: Acid Treatments,” Electrochim. Acta, 37(13), pp. 2459–2465. [CrossRef]
Collins, J. , Kear, G. , Li, X. , Low, C. T. J. , Pletcher, D. , Tangirala, R. , Stratton-Campbell, D. , Walsh, F. C. , and Zhang, C. , 2010, “ A Novel Flow Battery: A Lead Acid Battery Based on an Electrolyte With Soluble Lead(II)—Part VIII: The Cycling of a 10 cm × 10 cm Flow Cell,” J. Power Sources, 195(6), pp. 1731–1738. [CrossRef]
Xue, F.-Q. , Wang, Y.-L. , Wang, W.-H. , and Wang, X.-D. , 2008, “ Investigation on the Electrode Process of the Mn(II)/Mn(III) Couple in Redox Flow Battery,” Electrochim. Acta, 53(22), pp. 6636–6642. [CrossRef]
Ito, Y. , Nyce, M. , Plivelich, R. , Klein, M. , Steingart, D. , and Banerjee, S. , 2011, “ Zinc Morphology in Zinc–Nickel Flow Assisted Batteries and Impact on Performance,” J. Power Sources, 196(4), pp. 2340–2345. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Conceptual schematic diagram of H2/Fe membrane-less flow battery

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Effect of Teflon contents in carbon porous media on the cell performance

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Effect of HCl concentration on performance for membrane and membrane-less systems: (a) discharge performance and (b) charge performance

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Electrochemical impedance measurement: (a) membrane system and (b) membrane-less system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

One-dimensional control volume of the membrane-less flow battery system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Empirical relation: (a) effect of Teflon on the porosity of GDE and (b) effect of porosity on crossover current

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Comparison of total overpotential between experiment and modeling analysis

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Variation of different losses with respect to Teflon content in the cathode DM: (a) different overpotentials altogether and (b) distinct losses operating at i = 20 mA/cm2

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In