Research Papers

Pathways Toward Enhanced Techno-Economic Performance of Flow Battery Systems in Energy System Applications

[+] Author and Article Information
Menglian Zheng

Institute of Thermal Science and
Power Systems,
State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization,
School of Energy Engineering,
Zhejiang University,
Zheda Road 38,
Hangzhou 310027, China
e-mail: menglian_zheng@zju.edu.cn

Jie Sun

Institute of Thermal Science and
Power Systems,
School of Energy Engineering,
Zhejiang University,
Zheda Road 38,
Hangzhou 310027, China
e-mail: 11627019@zju.edu.cn

Christoph J. Meinrenken

Columbia Climate Center,
Earth Institute,
Columbia University,
New York, NY 10025
e-mail: cmeinrenken@ei.columbia.edu

Tao Wang

State Key Laboratory of
Clean Energy Utilization,
School of Energy Engineering,
Zhejiang University,
Zheda Road 38,
Hangzhou 310027, China
e-mail: oatgnaw@zju.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received March 27, 2018; final manuscript received July 10, 2018; published online September 17, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Partha P. Mukherjee.

J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor. 16(2), 021001 (Sep 17, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: JEECS-18-1029; doi: 10.1115/1.4040921 History: Received March 27, 2018; Revised July 10, 2018

Redox flow batteries have shown great potential for a wide range of applications in future energy systems. However, the lack of a deep understanding of the key drivers of the techno-economic performance of different flow battery technologies—and how these can be improved—is a major barrier to wider adoption of these battery technologies. This study analyzes these drivers and provides an extensive comparison of four flow battery technologies, including the all-vanadium redox (VRB), iron–chromium, zinc–bromine, and polysulfide–bromine flow batteries, by examining their current and projected techno-economic performances. We address the potential for performance improvements and resulting cost reduction by developing a component-based learning curve model. The model considers the near-term learning rates for various subcomponents of each of the four battery technologies as well as their technological improvements. The results show that (i) both technological improvements in the performance parameters as well as mass production effects could drive significant cost reductions for flow battery systems; (ii) flow battery systems could be cost-effective in a variety of energy system applications in the near future; and (iii) from a techno-economic perspective, VRB systems are more suitable for the applications that require low energy and high power capacities.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Dunn, B. , Kamath, H. , and Tarascon, J. M. , 2011, “ Electrical Energy Storage for the Grid: A Battery of Choices,” Science, 334(6058), pp. 928–935. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Chen, H. , Cong, T. N. , Yang, W. , Tan, C. , and Li, Y. , 2009, “ Progress in Electrical Energy Storage System: A Critical Review,” Prog. Natural Sci.: Mater. Int., 19(3), pp. 291–312. [CrossRef]
NERC, 2013, “ 2013 Long-Term Reliability Assessment,” North American Electric Reliability Corporation, Atlanta, GA, accessed July 30, 2018, https://www.nerc.com/pa/RAPA/ra/Reliability%20Assessments%20DL/2013_LTRA_FINAL.pdf
Zheng, M. , Meinrenken, C. J. , and Lackner, K. S. , 2014, “ Agent-Based Model for Electricity Consumption and Storage to Evaluate Economic Viability of Tariff Arbitrage for Residential Sector Demand Response,” Appl. Energy, 126(C), pp. 297–306. [CrossRef]
Newcomer, A. , Blumsack, A. B. , Apt, J. , Lave, L. B. , and Morgan, M. J. , 2008, “ Short Run Effects of a Price on Carbon Dioxide Emissions From U.S. electric Generators,” Environ. Sci. Technol., 42(9), pp. 3139–3144. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Zheng, M. , 2015, “ Smart Households: Economics and Emission Impacts of Distributed Energy Storage for Residential Sector Demand Response,” Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, New York. https://academiccommons.columbia.edu/catalog/ac:189801
Valentine, S. V. , 2011, “ Emerging Symbiosis: Renewable Energy and Energy Security,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 15(9), pp. 4572–4578. [CrossRef]
Qiu, Y. , and Anadon, L. D. , 2012, “ The Price of Wind Power in China During Its Expansion: Technology Adoption, Learning-by-Doing, Economies of Scale, and Manufacturing Localization,” Energy Econ., 34(3), pp. 772–785. [CrossRef]
Chakrabarti, M. H. , Roberts, E. P. L. , Bae, C. , and Saleem, M. , 2011, “ Ruthenium Based Redox Flow Battery for Solar Energy Storage,” Energy Convers. Manage., 52(7), pp. 2501–2508. [CrossRef]
Turker, B. , Klein, S. A. , Komsiyska, L. , Trujillo, J. J. , and Bremen, L. V. , 2013, “ Utilizing a Vanadium Redox Flow Battery to Avoid Wind Power Deviation Penalties in an Electricity Market,” Energy Convers. Manage., 76(76), pp. 1150–1157. [CrossRef]
Rastler, D. D. , 2010, “ Electricity Energy Storage Technology Options: A White Paper Primer on Applications, Costs and Benefits,” Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA, Technical Update 1020676, accessed July 30, 2018, http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2012/ph240/doshay1/docs/EPRI.pdf
Hosseina, M. , and Bathaee, S. M. T. , 2016, “ Optimal Scheduling for Distribution Network With Redox Flow Battery Storage,” Energy Convers. Manage., 121, pp. 145–151. [CrossRef]
Mokrian, P. , 2006, “ A Stochastic Programming Framework for the Valuation of Electricity Storage,” 26th USAEE/IAEE North American Conference, Ann Arbor, MI, Sept. 24–27, pp. 24–27. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/4cc3/9daee258877cbff93156781b660043a49b79.pdf
Skyllas-Kazacos, M. , Chakrabarti, M. H. , Hajimolana, S. A. , Mjalli, F. S. , and Saleem, M. , 2011, “ Progress in Flow Battery Research and Development,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 158(8), pp. R55–R79. [CrossRef]
Wang, W. , Luo, Q. , Li, B. , Wei, X. , and Li, L. , 2013, “ Recent Progress in Redox Flow Battery Research and Development,” Adv. Funct. Mater., 23(8), pp. 970–986. [CrossRef]
Wang, Y. , Chen, K. S. , Mishler, J. , Cho, S. C. , and Adroher, X. C. , 2011, “ A Review of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells: Technology, Applications, and Needs on Fundamental Research,” Appl. Energy, 88(4), pp. 981–1007. [CrossRef]
Minke, C. , Hickmann, T. , Dos Santos, A. R. , Kunz, U. , and Turek, T. , 2016, “ Cost and Performance Prospects for Composite Bipolar Plates in Fuel Cells and Redox Flow Batteries,” J. Power Sources, 305(C), pp. 182–190. [CrossRef]
Minke, C. , and Turek, T. , 2015, “ Economics of Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Membranes,” J. Power Sources, 286, pp. 247–257. [CrossRef]
Noack, D. I. J. , Roznyatovskaya, N. , Herr, T. , and Fischer, P. , 2015, “ Die Chemie Der Redox-Flow-Batterien,” Angew. Chem., 127(34), pp. 9912–9947. [CrossRef]
Leung, P. , Li, X. , León, C. P. D. , Berlouis, L. , and Low, C. T. J. , 2012, “ Progress in Redox Flow Batteries, Remaining Challenges and Their Applications in Energy Storage,” RSC Adv., 2(27), pp. 10125–10156. [CrossRef]
Alotto, P. , Guarnieri, M. , and Moro, F. , 2014, “ Redox Flow Batteries for the Storage of Renewable Energy: A Review,” Renewable Sustainable Energy Rev., 29(7), pp. 325–335. [CrossRef]
Chakrabarti, M. H. , Hajimolana, S. A. , Mjalli, F. S. , Saleem, M. , and Mustafa, I. , 2013, “ Redox Flow Battery for Energy Storage,” Arabian J. Sci. Eng., 38(4), pp. 723–739. [CrossRef]
Androsov, A. , Amarnath, A. , Scott, M. , and Hu, A. , 2014, “ Bromine-Polysulfide Redox-Flow Battery Design: Cost Analysis,” University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. http://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_chanhonoproj/1699/
Spellman, K. , Stiles, K. , and Little, I. , “ Economic Report on Vanadium Redox Flow Battery With Optimization of Flow Rate,” University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. http://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_chanhonoproj/1593/
Weber, A. Z. , Mench, M. M. , Meyers, J. P. , Ross, P. N. , Gostick, J. T. , and Liu, Q. , 2011, “ Redox Flow Batteries: A Review,” J. Appl. Electrochem., 41(10), pp. 1137–1164.
Roberts, E. P. L. , and Scamman, D. P. , “ Techno-Economic Modelling of a Utility-Scale Redox Flow Battery System,” Electric Energy Storage Applications and Technologies Conference 2011, San Diego, CA, accessed July 30, 2018, https://www.sandia.gov/ess-ssl/EESAT/2011_papers/Monday/09_Roberts_Ed.pdf
Zhang, M. , Moore, M. , Watson, J. S. , Zawodzinski, T. A. , and Counce, R. M. , 2012, “ Capital Cost Sensitivity Analysis of an All-Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 159(8), pp. A1183–A1188. [CrossRef]
Moore, M. , Counce, R. M. , Watson, J. S. , Thomas, A. Z. , and Sun, C. N. , 2016, “ An Analysis of the Contributions of Current Density and Voltage Efficiency to the Capital Costs of an All Vanadium Redox-Flow Battery,” J. Chem. Eng. Process Technol., 7(2), p. 288. https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/an-analysis-of-the-contributions-of-current-density-and-voltage-efficiencyto-the-capital-costs-of-an-all-vanadium-redoxflow-batter-2157-7048-1000288.php?aid=71807
Zeng, Y. K. , Zhao, T. S. , An, L. , Zhou, X. L. , and Wei, L. , 2015, “ A Comparative Study of All-Vanadium and Iron-Chromium Redox Flow Batteries for Large-Scale Energy Storage,” J. Power Sources, 300, pp. 438–443.
Tang, A. , Bao, J. , and Skyllas-Kazacos, M. , 2014, “ Studies on Pressure Losses and Flow Rate Optimization in Vanadium Redox Flow Battery,” J. Power Sources, 248, pp. 154–162. [CrossRef]
Yao, C. , Zhang, H. M. , Liu, T. , Li, X. F. , and Liu, Z. H. , 2012, “ Carbon Paper Coated With Supported Tungsten Trioxide as Novel Electrode for All-Vanadium Flow Battery,” J. Power Sources, 218, pp. 455–461.
Gong, K. , Fang, Q. , Gu, S. , Li, S. E. Y. , and Yan, Y. , 2015, “ Nonaqueous Redox-Flow Batteries: Organic Solvents, Supporting Electrolytes, and Redox Pairs,” Energy Environ. Sci., 8(12), pp. 3515–3530. [CrossRef]
Parasuraman, A. , Lim, T. M. , Menictas, C. , and Skyllas-Kazacos, M. , 2013, “ Review of Material Research and Development for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Applications,” Electrochimica Acta, 101, pp. 27–40.
Allen, D. L. , Byrne, K. J. , Jones, A. M. , and Southerland, A. , 2014, “ Study Level Design and Economic Analysis of a 7 MW Bromine-Polysulfide Redox Flow Battery,” University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN. http://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_chanhonoproj/1788/
Shibata, T. , Kumamoto, T. , Nagaoka, Y. , Kawase, K. , and Yano, K. , 2013, “ Redox Flow Batteries for the Stable Supply of Renewable Energy,” SEI Tech. Rev., 76, pp. 14–22.
Kear, G. , Shah, A. A. , and Walsh, F. C. , 2012, “ Development of the All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery for Energy Storage: A Review of Technological, Financial and Policy Aspects,” Int. J. Energy Res., 36(11), pp. 1105–1120.
León, C. P. D. , Frías-Ferrer, A. , González-García, J. , Szánto, D. A. , and Walsh, F. C. , 2006, “ Redox Flow Cells for Energy Conversion,” J. Power Sources, 160(1), pp. 716–732. [CrossRef]
Wang, Y. , and Cho, S. C. , 2014, “ Analysis and Three-Dimensional Modeling of Vanadium Flow Batteries,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 161(9), pp. 1200–1212. [CrossRef]
Gandomi, Y. A. , Aaron, D. S. , Zawodzinski, T. A. , and Mench, M. M. , 2016, “ In Situ Potential Distribution Measurement and Validated Model for All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery,” J. Electrochem. Soc., 163(1), pp. 5188–5201. [CrossRef]
Wright, T. P. , 1936, “ Factors Affecting the Cost of Airplanes,” J. Aeronaut. Sci., 3(4), pp. 122–128. [CrossRef]
Yelle, L. E. , 1979, “ The Learning Curve: Historical Review and Comprehensive Survey,” Decis. Sci., 10(2), pp. 302–328. [CrossRef]
Anzanello, M. J. , and Fogliatto, F. S. , 2011, “ Learning Curve Models and Applications: Literature Review and Research Directions,” Int. J. Ind. Ergonom., 41(5), pp. 573–583. [CrossRef]
Chakrabarti, M. H. , Dryfe, R. A. W. , and Roberts, E. P. L. , 2007, “ Evaluation of Electrolytes for Redox Flow Battery Applications,” Electrochim. Acta, 52(5), pp. 2189–2195. [CrossRef]
Feng, X. , Zhang, H. , and Ma, X. , 2011, “ Shunt Current Loss of the Vanadium Redox Flow Battery,” J. Power Sources, 196(24), pp. 10753–10757. [CrossRef]
Shah, A. A. , Al-Fetlawi, H. , and Walsh, F. C. , 2010, “ Dynamic Modelling of Hydrogen Evolution Effects in the All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery,” Electrochim. Acta, 55(3), pp. 1125–1139. [CrossRef]
Shin, S. , Yun, S. , and Moon, S. , 2013, “ A Review of Current Developments in Non-Aqueous Redox Flow Batteries: Characterization of Their Membranes for Design Perspective,” RSC Adv., 3(24), pp. 9095–9116. [CrossRef]
Darling, R. M. , Gallagher, K. J. , Kowalski, J. A. , Ha, S. , and Brushett, F. R. , 2014, “ Pathways to Low-Cost Electrochemical Energy Storage: A Comparison of Aqueous and Nonaqueous Flow Batteries,” Energy Environ. Sci., 7(11), pp. 3459–3477. [CrossRef]
Zeng, Y. K. , Zhou, X. L. , Zeng, L. , Yan, X. H. , and Zhao, T. S. , 2016, “ Performance Enhancement of Iron-Chromium Redox Flow Batteries by Employing Interdigitated Flow Fields,” J. Power Sources, 327, pp. 258–264. [CrossRef]
Zhou, H. , Zhou, X. L. , Zeng, L. , Yan, X. H. , and Zhao, T. S. , 2006, “ Novel Cobalt Coated Carbon Felt as High Performance Negative Electrode in Sodium Polysulfide/Bromine Redox Flow Battery,” Electrochemistry, 74(4), pp. 296–298. [CrossRef]
Viswanathan, V. , Crawford, A. , Stephenson, D. , and Kim, S. , 2014, “ Cost and Performance Model for Redox Flow Batteries,” J. Power Sources, 247(3), pp. 1040–1051. [CrossRef]
SMA Solar Technology AG, 2015, “ Sunny Mini Central 6000TL/7000TL/8000TL,” SMA Solar Technology AG, Hesse, Germany, accessed July 30, 2018, http://sol-distribution.com.au/SMA-Inverters/Installation-Guide-SMC-6000TL-7000TL-8000TL.pdf
Crawford, A. , Viswanathan, V. , Stephenson, D. , Wang, W. , and Thomsen, E. , 2015, “ Comparative Analysis for Various Redox Flow Batteries Chemistries Using a Cost Performance Model,” J. Power Sources, 293, pp. 388–399. [CrossRef]
Zhou, X. L. , Zeng, Y. K. , Zhu, X. B. , Wei, L. , and Zhao, T. S. , 2016, “ A High-Performance Dual-Scale Porous Electrode for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries,” J. Power Sources, 325, pp. 329–336. [CrossRef]
Clark, N. H. , and Eidler, P. , 1999, “ Development of Zinc/Bromine Batteries for Load-Leveling Applications: Phase 2 Final Report,” Office of Scientific & Technical Information Technical Reports, 2, pp. 51–62.
Ge, S. H. , Yi, B. L. , and Zhang, H. M. , 2004, “ Study of a High Power Density Sodium Polysulfide/Bromine Energy Storage Cell,” J. Appl. Electrochem., 34(2), pp. 181–185. [CrossRef]
Hagedorn, N. H. , 1984, “ NASA Redox Storage System Development Project,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC, NASA Technical Report No. NASA-TM-82665. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19830006412.pdf
Lim, J. W. , and Dai, G. L. , 2015, “ Carbon Fiber/Polyethylene Bipolar Plate-Carbon Felt Electrode Assembly for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries (VRFB),” Compos. Struct., 134, pp. 483–492. [CrossRef]
Zeng, Y. K. , Zhou, X. L. , An, L. , Wei, L. , and Zhao, T. S. , 2016, “ A High-Performance Flow-Field Structured Iron-Chromium Redox Flow Battery,” J. Power Sources, 324, pp. 738–744. [CrossRef]
Wang, N. , Yu, J. , Zhou, Z. , Fang, D. , and Liu, S. , 2013, “ SPPEK/TPA Composite Membrane as a Separator of Vanadium Redox Flow Battery,” J. Membr. Sci., 437(12), pp. 114–121. [CrossRef]
Yang, H. S. , Park, J. H. , Ra, H. W. , Jin, C. S. , and Yang, J. H. , 2016, “ Critical Rate of Electrolyte Circulation for Preventing Zinc Dendrite Formation in a Zinc–Bromine Redox Flow Battery,” J. Power Sources, 325, pp. 446–452. [CrossRef]
Ferioli, F. , Schoots, K. , and Zwaan, B. C. C. V. , 2009, “ Use and Limitations of Learning Curves for Energy Technology Policy: A Component-Learning Hypothesis,” Energy Policy, 37(7), pp. 2525–2535. [CrossRef]
Dutton, J. M. , and Thomas, A. , 1984, “ Treating Progress Functions as a Managerial Opportunity,” Acad. Manage. Rev., 9(2), pp. 235–247. [CrossRef]
Schoots, K. , Kramer, G. J. , and Zwaan, B. C. C. V. , 2010, “ Technology Learning for Fuel Cells: An Assessment of past and Potential Cost Reductions,” Energy Policy, 38(6), pp. 2887–2897. [CrossRef]
Wang, X. L. , Zhang, Y. , Ying, L. I. , and Zhang, H. , 2015, “ Vanadium Flow Battery Technology and Its Industrial Status,” Energy Storage Sci. Technol., 4(5), pp. 458–466.
Jacques, C. , 2014, “ Lower-Cost Flow Batteries to Create $190 Million Energy Storage Market in 2020,” Lux Research, Boston, MA, accessed July 30, 2018, http://www.luxresearchinc.com/news-and-events/press-releases/read/lower-cost-flow-batteries-create190-million-energy-storage
Wang, S. Q. , 2014, “ Application and Market Research of Proton Exchange Membranes,” Inf. Recording Mater., 15(1), pp. 45–51 (In Chinese).
Hagedorn, N. H. , 1983, “ NASA Redox Project Status Summary,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration Report, Washington, DC, NASA Technical Report No. NASA-TM-83401. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19830021539.pdf
Lopez-Atalaya, M. , Codina, G. , Perez, J. R. , Vazquez, J. L. , and Aldaz, A. , 1992, “ Optimization Studies on a Fe/Cr Redox Flow Battery,” J. Power Sources, 39(2), pp. 147–154. [CrossRef]
Shibata, A. , Kanji, S. , and Nakajima, M. , 1994, “ Development of Vanadium Redox Flow Battery for Photovoltaic Generation System,” IEEE First World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Waikoloa, HI, Dec. 5–9, pp. 950–953.
Mohammadi, T. , and Skyllas-Kazacos, M. , 1995, “ Characterisation of Novel Composite Membrane for Redox Flow Battery Applications,” J. Membr. Sci., 98(1–2), pp. 77–87. [CrossRef]
Zhou, X. L. , Zhao, T. S. , Zeng, Y. K. , An, L. , and Wei, L. , 2016, “ A Highly Permeable and Enhanced Surface Area Carbon-Cloth Electrode for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries,” J. Power Sources, 329, pp. 247–254. [CrossRef]
Wu, L. , Shen, Y. , Yu, L. , Xi, J. , and Qiu, X. , 2016, “ Boosting Vanadium Flow Battery Performance by Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanospheres Electrocatalyst,” Nano Energy, 28, pp. 19–28. [CrossRef]
Zhang, L. , Zhang, H. , Lai, Q. , Li, X. , and Cheng, Y. , 2013, “ Development of Carbon Coated Membrane for Zinc/Bromine Flow Battery With High Power Density,” J. Power Sources, 227, pp. 41–47. [CrossRef]
Yang, J. H. , Yang, H. S. , Ra, H. W. , Shim, J. , and Jeon, J. D. , 2015, “ Effect of a Surface Active Agent on Performance of Zinc/Bromine Redox Flow Batteries: Improvement in Current Efficiency and System Stability,” J. Power Sources, 275, pp. 294–297. [CrossRef]
Nice, A. W. , 1981, “ NASA Redox System Development Project Status,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC, NASA Technical Report No. NASA-TM-82665. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19820017761
Gahn, R. F. , Charleston, J. , Ling, J. S. , and Reid, M. A. , 1981, “ Performance of Advanced Chromium Electrodes for the NASA Redox Energy Storage System,” Natl. Aeronaut. Space Admin. Rep., 127(8), p. C341. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19820004701.pdf
Reed, D. , Thomsen, E. , Li, B. , Wang, W. , and Nie, Z. , 2016, “ Performance of a Low Cost Interdigitated Flow Design on a 1 kW Class All Vanadium Mixed Acid Redox Flow Battery,” J. Power Sources, 306, pp. 24–31. [CrossRef]
Li, X. , Zhang, H. , Mai, Z. , Zhang, H. , and Vankelecom, I. , 2011, “ Ion Exchange Membranes for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (VRB) Applications,” Energy Environ. Sci., 4(4), pp. 1147–1160. [CrossRef]
Park, M. , Jung, Y. J. , Kim, J. , Hi, L. , and Cho, J. , 2013, “ Synergistic Effect of Carbon Nanofiber/Nanotube Composite Catalyst on Carbon Felt Electrode for High-Performance All-Vanadium Redox Flow Battery,” Nano Lett., 13(10), pp. 4833–4839. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Lau, W. J. , Ismail, A. F. , Misdan, N. , and Kassim, M. A. , 2012, “ A Recent Progress in Thin Film Composite Membrane: A Review,” Desalination, 287, pp. 190–199. [CrossRef]
Taherian, R. , 2014, “ A Review of Composite and Metallic Bipolar Plates in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell: Materials, Fabrication, and Material Selection,” J. Power Sources, 265, pp. 370–390. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Methodology for the flow battery cost calculation and prediction (The dashed, dotted, and dash-dotted lines indicate that the parameters are based on the year 2016's average, year 2016's best, and year 2020's best conditions, respectively.)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Schematic of a flow battery system

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Past technological development trajectory [49,5860,6774] of (a) iron–chromium flow battery (from 1978 to 2016); (b) all-vanadium redox flow battery (from 1975 to 2016); (c) zinc–bromine (from 1977 to 2015); and (d) bromine–polysulfide flow battery (from 2004 to 2014). HKUST and NASA are abbreviations for Hong Kong University of Science and Technology and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration in the U.S., respectively.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Cost breakdown of flow battery systems (sized at 25 kW/50 kWh; capital cost only; “average,” “best,” and “projected” denote the average-, best-, and projected-case scenarios, respectively; error bars represent one standard deviation above and below the mean; values smaller than one are not marked.)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Levelized storage cost at varying energy-to-power ratios (average-case scenario; DESS and T&D denote the distributed energy storage system and transmission and distribution system, respectively; the full definitions and descriptions of the plotted applications can be found in Ref. [13].)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Cost reduction (comparing the costs under the average- and projected-case scenarios) contribution of various technological improvements and material cost reductions: (a) at energy-to-power ratio of 0.25 and (b) at energy-to-power ratio of 2



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In