Research Papers

Experimental Evaluation of the Effect of Cycle Profile on the Durability of Commercial Lithium Ion Power Cells

[+] Author and Article Information
K. N. Radhakrishnan, D. J. Nelson, M. W. Ellis

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Virginia Tech,
Blacksburg, VA 24061

T. Coupar

Ford Motor Company,
Detroit, MI 48120

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received April 27, 2018; final manuscript received July 21, 2018; published online September 12, 2018. Assoc. Editor: George Nelson.

J. Electrochem. En. Conv. Stor. 16(1), 011012 (Sep 12, 2018) (8 pages) Paper No: JEECS-18-1039; doi: 10.1115/1.4041013 History: Received April 27, 2018; Revised July 21, 2018

The effect of the charge/discharge profile on battery durability is a critical factor for the application of batteries and for the design of appropriate battery testing protocols. In this work, commercial high-power prismatic lithium ion cells for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) were cycled using a pulse-heavy profile and a simple square-wave profile to investigate the effect of cycle profile on battery durability. The pulse-heavy profile was designed to simulate on-road conditions for a typical HEV, while the simplified square-wave profile was designed to have the same total charge throughput, but with lower peak currents. The 5 Ah batteries were cycled for 100 kAh with periodic performance tests to monitor the state of the batteries. Results indicate that, for the batteries tested, the capacity fade for the two profiles was very similar and was 11±0.5% compared to beginning of life (BOL). The change in internal resistance of the batteries during testing was also monitored and found to increase 21% and 12% compared to BOL for the pulse-heavy and square-wave profiles, respectively. The results suggest that simplified testing protocols using square-wave cycling may provide adequate insight into capacity fade behavior for more complex hybrid vehicle drive cycles.

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Fig. 1

Example current profile derived from the US06 drive cycle [13]

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Fig. 2

(a) Current applied to battery in the pulse profile, (b) voltage response to the pulse profile, (c) current applied to battery in the square profile, and (d) voltage response to the square profile

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Fig. 3

(a) Equivalent circuit model used to estimate resistance (circled) and (b) current input and voltage response to the HPPC test

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Fig. 4

Average capacity fade for batteries cycled with both profiles

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Fig. 5

Cell surface temperature during cycling with the pulse profile

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Fig. 6

Hybrid pulse power characterization power for the batteries calculated at 1 s during the pulse test: (a) discharge power-pulse profile, (b) charge power-pulse profile, (c) discharge power-square profile, and (d) charge power-square profile

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Fig. 7

Internal resistance changes for batteries cycled at 40% SOC

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Fig. 8

Voltage profiles and corresponding capacity fade, and resistance for batteries cycled at 60% SOC from 40 kAh to 100 kAh: (a) voltage window shift-pulse profile, (b) voltage window shift-square profile, (c) capacity fade for batteries cycled at 60% SOC, and (d) resistance changed for batteries cycled at 60% SOC

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Fig. 9

Voltage response and capacity fade—batteries cycled with increased SOC differential from 40 kAh to 100 kAh: (a) voltage window for batteries cycled with increased SOC differentials, (b) capacity fade for batteries cycled with increased SOC differentials, and (c) resistance change for batteries cycled with increased SOC differentials

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Fig. 10

Incremental capacity analysis curves for (a) baseline, (b) increased SOC, and (c) increased SOC differential cases



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